جمعه ۲ آبان ۱۳۹۳ ه‍.ش.

یادی از ترانه ی "دوتا چشم سیاه داری" و اجرا کنندگان آن



ترانه ی "دوتا چشم سیاه داری" توسط کوروس سرهنگ زاده، فریدون فروغی، بیژن مفید، داریوش اقبالی و دریا دادور خوانده شده است:
توسط کوروس سرهنگ زاده
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dQSTs7zXazw
توسط فریدون فروغی
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=riBFOQsHdjA
توسط بیژن مفید
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w9YiAa8qhuk
توسط داریوش اقبالی
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OPI-PEorJEU
توسط دریا دادور
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SxYcErPxKOQ

شرح زندگی اجرا کنندگان ترانه ی "دوتا چشم سیاه داری"
کوروس سرهنگ زاده
http://www.iransong.com/biography/356.htm
فریدون فروغی
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fereydoon_Forooghi
بیژن مفید
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bijan_Mofid
داریوش اقبالی
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dariush_Eghbali
دریا دادور
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Darya_Dadvar

متن ترانه ی "دو تا چشم سیاه داری"
http://www.iransong.com/song/3819.htm

یادداشت پایانی

١ - ترانه ی "دوتا چشم سیاه داری" از جمله ترانه های بسیار مورد توجه ی ایرانیان در سال های ٣٠ و ٤٠ خورشیدی بود.
٢ - بسیاری افراد بر این باورند که زنده یاد داریوش رفیعی نخستین اجرا کننده این ترانه بوده است.
٣ - با وجود جستجو و تلاش فراوان، مدرک قابل اعتماد و مستندی در مورد نام ترانه سرا یافت نشد.

 دکتر منوچهر سعادت نوری

مجموعه ی " یادی از برخی هنرمندان ایران و ترانه های مشهورشان"
http://msnselectedarticles.blogspot.ca/2014/06/blog-post_11.html

پنجشنبه ۱ آبان ۱۳۹۳ ه‍.ش.

امید به زندگی و طول عمر در ایران و جهان

امید به زندگی یک شاخص آماری است که نشان می‌دهد متوسط طول عمر در یک جامعه چقدر است و یا به عبارت دیگر هر عضو آن جامعه چند سال می‌تواند توقع داشته باشد. هر چه شاخص‌های بهداشتی و همچنین درمانی بهبود یابد امید زندگی افزایش خواهد یافت و از این رو این شاخص یکی از شاخص‌های سنجش پیشرفت و عقب ماندگی کشورهاست. امید زندگی زنان در همه جوامع چند سال (در کل جهان چهار و نیم سال) بیشتر از مردان است. مطابق آمار سازمان ملل کشورهای ژاپن، هنگ کنگ، ایسلند، سویس و استرالیا به ترتیب در جهان مقام‌های اول را دارند که با حدود ۸۲ سال از میانگین جهانی ۲۲ درصد بالاتر است. کشورهای سوازیلند، موزامبیک، زیمباوه، سیرالئون و لسوتو نیز به ترتیب در پایینترین رده قراردارند. امید زندگی در این کشورها حدود ۴۲ سال است که ۳۸ درصد کمتر از میانگین جهانی و نصف کشورهای بالای جدول است. امید زندگی در ایران برای زنان ۷۲٫۶، برای مردان ۶۹٫۴ و در کل ۷۱ سال است که ۵٫۵ درصد از میانگین جهانی بالاتر است و ایران را در بین ۱۹۵ کشور در رتبه ۱۰۹ قرار می‌دهد. این در حالی است که میانگین سنی فوت‌شدگان تهرانی در سال ۱۳۸۸ به ۴۹ سال و چهار ماه کاهش پیدا کرده است.
گزارشی جدید از طول عمر مردم ایران و جهان: امید به زندگی و طول عمر بیشتر در تمامی جهان افزایش یافته است. گزارش تازه سازمان بهداشت جهانی می‌گوید، کودکی که در سال ۲۰۱۲ به‌دنیا آمده است نسبت به متولد سال ۱۹۹۰ به طور متوسط ۶ سال بیشتر عمر می‌کند. سازمان بهداشت جهانی در گزارش سال ۲۰۱۴ خود راجع به امید به زندگی و طول عمر می‌‌گوید، این که که موالید سال ۲۰۱۲ نسبت به موالید سال ۱۹۹۰ به طور متوسط ۶ سال بیشتر عمر می‌کنند را باید نتیجه مبارزه علیه مرگ و میر کودکان و رشته‌ای از بیماری‌ها دانست. در این گزارش آمده که مانند گذشته زنان از مردان بیشتر (به طور متوسط ۶/ ۴ سال) عمر می‌کنند. زنان ژاپنی با طول عمر متوسط ۸۷ سال و مردان ایسلندی با طول عمر متوسط ۸۱ سال بیشترین طول عمر را در سراسر جهان دارا هستند. در کشورهای ایرلند، هلند، اتریش، پرتغال، بریتانیا، فنلاند و یونان نیز طول عمر متوسط مردان و زنان بالاست.
آمارهای ایران: خبرگزاری مهر با استناد به گزارش سازمان بهداشت جهانی می‌نویسد، ایران در سال ۲۰۱۲، ۷۶ میلیون و ۴۲۴ هزار نفر جمعیت داشته و بر اساس این گزارش، پسر و دختری که در سال ۲۰۱۲ در ایران به دنیا آمده‌‌اند می‌توانند به ترتیب ۷۲ و ۷۶ سال عمر کنند.
طول عمر در آلمان: آلمان با طول عمر ۸۳ سال برای زنان و ۷۸ سال برای مردان جزو ۱۰ کشور اول صدر جدول طول عمر در سراسر جهان به حساب نمی‌آید. با این همه طول عمر مردم آلمان نسبت به سال ۱۹۹۰ پنج سال بیشتر شده است. در آن سال طول عمر متوسط زنان و مردان آلمانی به‌ترتیب ۸۱ و ۷۶ سال عنوان شده بود.
بیشترین طول عمر: بیشترین طول عمر متوسط که ۸۴ سال است را ژاپنی‌ها دارند. بعد از آن کشورهای ایرلند، استرالیا، ایتالیا، اسرائیل، سن مارینو، سوئیس و سنگاپور قرار می‌گیرند که طول عمر متوسط در آنها ۸۳ سال است. رده بعدی متعلق به فرانسه، ایسلند، کانادا، لوکزامبورگ، موناکو، نیوزلند، نروژ، اسپانیا و سوئد با طول عمر متوسط ۸۲ سال است. در انتهای جدول، کشورهای آفریقایی سیرالئون (۴۶سال)، لسوتو (۵۰ سال)، جمهوری آفریقای مرکزی (۵۱ سال)، چاد (۵۱) سال، آنگولا (۵۱ سال)، جمهوری دمکراتیک کنگو (۵۲ سال)، ساحل عاج (۵۳ سال)، سومالی (۵۳ سال)، نیجریه (۵۴ سال)، سئوازیلند (۵۴ سال) و گینه بیسائو (۵۴ سال) قرار می‌گیرند.
بیشترین بهبود در زمینه امید به زندگی بین سال‌های ۱۹۹۰ تا ۲۰۱۲ در میان کشورهای فقیر دیده می‌شود. سازمان بهداشت جهانی می‌گوید، در کشورهای در حال رشد، متوسط طول عمر ۹ سال افزایش یافته است. مارگارت چان، دبیر کل سازمان بهداشت جهانی در این باره گفته است: «یک دلیل مهم این است که امروز کودکان بسیار کمتری تا قبل از رسیدن به ۵ سالگی می‌میرند.» دلایل دیگر افزایش طول عمر متوسط در جهان مبارزه با بیماری‌هایی مانند سل و سرطان و همچنین بهبود اوضاع اقتصادی عنوان شده است. برای نمونه در اتیوپی امید به زندگی ۱۹ سال افزایش یافته و به ۶۴ سال رسیده است. طول عمر متوسط در کامبوج نیز با افزایشی ۱۸ ساله به ۷۲ سال رسیده است. مارگرت چان در این باره اظهار می‌کند: «با این حال هنوز هم میان کشورهای فقیر و ثروتمند شکافی عمیق وجود دارد.» او ادامه می‌دهد: «مردم کشورهایی با درآمد بالا نسبت به مردم کشورهایی با درآمد پایین شانس بسیار بیشتری برای زندگی طولانی‌تر دارند.»
جايگاه ايران و ٢٢٢ کشور جهان : محققان يک نقشه رنگي از تفاوت شگفت انگيز در اميد به زندگي و طول عمر در ٢٢٢ کشور جهان تهيه کرده اند. به گزارش مهر، اين نقشه نشان مي‌دهد چگونه مردم کشورهاي توسعه يافته با سيستم‌هاي بهداشت و درمان دولتي مانند ژاپن، کانادا و ايتاليا و فرانسه طول عمر بيشتري داشته و به طور ميانگين بيش از  سال عمر مي‌کنند. بر اساس اين نقشه کشور کوچک موناکو که ساکنان ثروتمند و خدمات بهداشت و درمان کاملا رايگان و دولتي دارد با  ٨٩  سال بيشترين طول عمر و اميد به زندگي را در بين ٢٢٢ کشور مورد بررسي دارد. اين ميزان طول عمر پنج سال بيش از هر کشور ديگري در جهان است. در اين گزارش آمده است کمترين طول عمر در کشور آفريقاي چاد است که مردم در آن فقط ٤٨ سال عمر مي‌کنند. بر اساس اين نقشه ايران با رتبه ١٤٧ يکي از کشورهاي داراي اميد به زندگي بالا است. در ايران طول عمر به طور متوسط ٧٠ سال است که اين امر براي مردان ٦٨ سال و براي زنان ٧٢ سال تخمين زده مي‌شود.
دویپه وله با ارائه آماری از طول عمر در ایران نوشت: آمار جدیدی درباره متوسط عمر در ایران وجود ندارد. بنا بر آمار سازمان بهداشت جهانی که متعلق به سال ۲۰۰۵ میلادی است، متوسط عمر مردان ایرانی ۶۸ سال و متوسط عمر زنان ۷۳ سال است. جامعه ایران، جامعه‌ای جوان است و طبق آمار اعلام شده دو سوم جمعیت ایران کمتر از ۳۵ سال سن دارند. شمار سالمندان در ایران ۵ درصد جمعیت کشور است. اما کم نیستند روحانیونی که طول عمرشان به بیش از ۷۰ و ۸۰ سال می‌رسد. این تارنما با اشاره به اینکه برخی از منابع دلیل طول عمر را ژنتیک می‌دانند، افزود: این دلیل می‌تواند در پهنه جمعیت یک کشورصحت داشته باشد. دویپه وله افزود: طبق تحقیقاتی که مجله آمریکایی فوربس انجام داده، نام ۱۰ کشور اعلام شده که سنت‌های غذایی آن‌ها به حفظ اندام مناسب و طول عمر کمک می‌کند که در این میان نام ایران مشاهده نمی‌شود. ژاپن، سنگاپور، چین، سوئد، فرانسه و کشورهای حوزه دریای مدیترانه رده‌های نخست این لیست را به خود اختصاص داده‌‌اند. دویچه وله نوشت: تحقیقات نشان داده است که کنترل استرس به جلوگیری از بیماری‌های قلبی کمک می‌کند. اگرچه اکثر مردم نمی‌توانند به طور همیشگی از استرس دوری کنند، اما شواهد بسیاری نشان می‌دهد که افرادی که ورزش می‌کنند، عمر بیشتری دارند. ورزش منظم باعث کاهش بیماری‌های قلبی، سکته، دیابت، انواع سرطان‌ها و افسردگی می‌شود. ورزش همچنین موجب قوی‌تر شدن ذهن می‌شود.
این تارنما با اشاره به اینکه تحقیقات ۶ ساله پژوهشگران دانشگاه لومالیند کالیفرنیا بر روی بیش از ۷۰ هزار داوطلب نشان می‌دهد که که افراد گیاهخوار از طول عمر بیشتری برخوردارند، افزود: پژوهشگران سوئدی در تحقیقاتی که بر روی ۱۸۰۰ فرد سالمند برای مدت ۱۸ سال انجام دادند به این نتیجه رسیده‌اند که افرادی که فعالیت‌های تفریحی، جسمی، اجتماعی و تولیدی (مثل باغبانی) دارند به نسبت افرادی که فاقد این گونه فعالیت‌ها هستند بیشتر عمر می‌کنند. دویچه وله نوشت: دندانپزشکان نخ دندان را به عنوان یک راز طول عمر می‌شناسند و اعتقاد دارند استفاده از نخ دندان و خارج کردن جرم هایی که میان دندان‌هاست می‌تواند از بیماری های قلبی و گوارشی جلوگیری کرده و عمر ۱۰۰ ساله را تضمین می‌کند. آن‌ها همچنین بر این عقیده هستند که استفاده دائمی از مسواک در کنار نخ دندان یکی از واجبات به حساب می‌آید. این تارنما با اشاره به اینکه افراد با طول عمر بالا معمولا دیدگاهی مثبت ‌گرا نسبت به زندگی دارند. شخصیت این افراد شاد و خوشبخت است. محققان در تحقیقی که بر روی ۲۴ هزار نفر انجام دادند، به این نتیجه رسیدند افرادی که در طی روز هنگام خستگی و خواب آلودگی کمی چرت می زنند، ۳۷ درصد کمتر دچار بیماری‌های قلبی و به دنبال آن مرگ می‌شوند. تحقیقات نشان داده است که چرت زدن باعث کاهش هورمون‌های استرس زا می‌شود.


Life Expectancy in Iran and some other Countries
Abstract: Life expectancy is a statistical average of the number of years a human is expected to live; this will vary according to region and era. In the Bronze and Iron Age life expectancy was 26; the 2010 world average was 67.2. In Swaziland the average is 49.42 years; in Japan it is 82.6 years... While the average life expectancy in the world is 67 years, Iran's rate is six percent above the world average at 72 years, says a high-ranking health official in Iran. Read more here
http://msnselectedarticles.blogspot.ca/2014/10/life-expectancy-in-iran-and-some-other.html
MSN Selected Articles



شنبه ۲۶ مهر ۱۳۹۳ ه‍.ش.

== Life Expectancy in Iran and some other Countries ==


 General Information
1. Life expectancy is a statistical average of the number of years a human is expected to live; this will vary according to region and era. In the Bronze and Iron Age life expectancy was 26; the 2010 world average was 67.2. In Swaziland the average is 49.42 years; in Japan it is 82.6 years. The combination of high infant mortality and deaths in young adulthood from accidents, epidemics, plagues, wars, and childbirth, particularly before modern medicine was widely available, significantly lowers the overall life expectancy. But for those who survive early hazards, a life expectancy of sixty or seventy would not be uncommon. For example, a society with a life expectancy of 40 may have few people dying at age 40: most will die before 30 years of age or after 55. In countries with high infant mortality rates, life expectancy at birth is highly sensitive to the rate of death in the first few years of life. Because of this sensitivity to infant mortality, simple life expectancy at age zero can be subjected to gross misinterpretation, leading one to believe that a population with a low overall life expectancy will necessarily have a small proportion of older people. For example, in a hypothetical stationary population in which half the population dies before the age of five, but everybody else dies at exactly 70 years old, the life expectancy at age zero will be about 36 years, while about 25% of the population will be between the ages of 50 and 70... Life expectancy differs from maximum life span. Life expectancy is an average, computed over all people including those who die shortly after birth, those who die in early adulthood in childbirth or in wars, and those who live unimpeded until old age, whereas lifespan is an individual-specific concept and maximum lifespan is an upper bound rather than an average.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_expectancy
2. Life expectancy in countries around the world is growing, according to a new report from the World Health Organization, with most of the progress apparent in low-income countries. WHO said that in high-income countries, most of the gain in life expectancy is credited to fewer people dying before age 60 from heart disease and stroke.
For men, the top three countries for life expectancy in 2012 were: Iceland 81.2, Switzerland 80.7, and Australia, 80.5. For women, the top countries were: Japan 87.0, Spain 85.1, and Switzerland 85.1.
http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/life-expectancy-in-canada-hits-80-for-men-84-for-women-1.2644355
 In the USA
1. Average life expectancy in the United States reached an all-time high of 78.8 years in 2012, federal officials reported Wednesday Oct. 8, 2014. The increased life expectancy is likely due to Americans living healthier lifestyles, according to researchers from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
http://health.usnews.com/health-news/articles/2014/10/08/us-life-expectancy-hits-record-high-of-nearly-79-years-cdc
2. Americans' life expectancy rates are at a record high, but suicide rates are on the rise, according to a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report released on Wednesday Oct. 8, 2014. The study, which looked at 2012 U.S. mortality data, found Americans are expected to live longer than ever: life expectancy from birth reached 78.8 years, a .01 increase from the previous year. As was the case in 2011, women were expected to live longer than men by 4.8 years. Part of the reason why life expectancy has increased is because of the decreasing infant mortality rate, or the rate of infant deaths to live births per year.
http://www.usnews.com/news/newsgram/articles/2014/10/08/us-suicides-hit-highest-rate-in-25-years
3. More on USA
http://www.worldlifeexpectancy.com/usa/life-expectancy
 In Canada
1. In Canada, average life expectancy for males born in 2012 is 80 and for females 84, the agency said in Thursday’s report, World Health Statistics 2014. In comparison, males born in Canada in 1990 could expect to live to 74 and females to 81 on average. For both sexes in Canada, life expectancy increased on average from 77 in 1990 to 82 in 2012.
http://www.cbc.ca/news/health/life-expectancy-in-canada-hits-80-for-men-84-for-women-1.2644355
2. More on Canada
http://www.statcan.gc.ca/search-recherche/bb/info/life-vie-eng.htm
 In the UK
http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/subnational-health4/life-expec-at-birth-age
 In France
http://countryeconomy.com/demography/life-expectancy/france
 In Iran
1. While the average life expectancy in the world is 67 years, Iran's rate is six percent above the world average at 72 years, says a high-ranking health official in Iran. In a workshop on life expectancy in faculty of Medicine in Shiraz University, Dr Kamran Baqeri Lankarani, the head of the Center of Research for Health Polices in the Iranian Fars Province, said, "Life expectancy in some advanced countries is more than 82 years, and Iran can cover these 10 years of difference with certain precautions." He mentioned that life expectancy is one of the three main factors considered for human development as it is linked to health system and health in the society.
"The other two factors are literacy and average income. Iran is ranked seventh among the middle-ranking countries in the world, for which we should reach the level for advanced countries at the end of the five-year plan," he added. Lankarani said the provinces of Tehran and Gilan have the highest life expectancy in Iran while the lowest belongs to Sistan and Baluchestan (Reported on Jul 15, 2010).  
http://www.presstv.ir/detail/134947.html
2. In 2012 the life expectancy in Iran increased to 73.76 years. That year, the life expectancy for women was 75.75 years and for men 71.87 years. Iran’s position improvened in 2012.
http://countryeconomy.com/demography/life-expectancy/iran
Epilogues
1. In comparing the life expectancy figures of American males and females, it must be noted that the relative higher figure for the females may be due to the fact that the American females usually have a careful healthier life than the males. Besides, American females generally reacts quickly to their health problems and go to visit a physision.
2. The relative higher figures in Canada as compared to the USA, are most likely related to the differences of health care services in these two countries. Most Canadians have a Medicare, an unofficial name for Canada's publicly funded universal health insurance system.
3. In Iran, the relative higher figure in Tehran may be due to more accessible health services as compared to the other cities. However, Tehran suffers a very polluted air. Gilan province, on the other hand, enjoys a fresh air and may have much cleaner and healthier environment than other provinces.
Manouchehr Saadat Noury, PhD
MSN Selected Articles
http://msnselectedarticles.blogspot.ca/2014/10/life-expectancy-in-iran-and-some-other.html

یکشنبه ۲۰ مهر ۱۳۹۳ ه‍.ش.

ایرانیان درپهنه ی سرزمین نیاکان آریایی : ٢٨ - در سرزمین های قزاقستان و ترکمنستان


الف: در سرزمین قزاقستان
١ - قزاقستان: کشوری است در آسیای میانه و از شمال با روسیه، از شرق با چین، در جنوب شرقی با قرقیزستان، در جنوب با ازبکستان و در جنوب غربی با ترکمنستان همسایه است. جمعیت قزاقستان ۱۶ میلیون و ۶۰۰ هزار نفر است و تراکم جمعیتی کمی دارد. ... آستانه، پایتخت کنونی قزاقستان شهری است بسیار سرد و بادخیز که دمای هوا در زمستان در آن به ۴۰ درجه زیر صفر می‌رسد... ساکنان اصلی منطقه امروزی قزاقستان از اقوام ایرانی‌ تبار سکیت بودند... قزاقستان در تاریخ ۱۶ دسامبر ۱۹۹۱ آخرین جمهوری شوروی بود که اعلام استقلال کرد.
٢ - قزاق ها: در قرن سیزدهم میلادی زیر فرمان چنگیزخان درآمدند و تحت حکومت جوجی فرزند جوان وی قرار گرفتند. سپس یکی از بخشهای اردو ی طلائی شدند و جزء امپراطوری غربی مغول که به وسیله ٔ باتو پایه گذاری شد به شمار رفتند. اردو ی طلائی پس از سه قرن سیادت در شرق و غرب آسیا افول کرد و در اوایل قرن شانزدهم این امپراطوری به خانان چندی تقسیم شد. ولی قزاق ها در استپ های ترکستان به سر بردند و در آن هنگام به سه قسمت می شدند: اردوی کوچک ، اردوی متوسط و اردوی بزرگ  پس از قیام اکتبر در روسیه قزاق ها به صورت یکی از حکومت های خودمختار قزاقستان و در اوت ١٩٢۵ جزو حکومت سوسیالیستی روسیه درآمدند.
٣ - شهر آلماتی ( آلماتا) پرجمعیت‌ترین شهر قزاقستان:  بعنوان مرکز اصلی تجاری در جنوب شرقی این کشور و در امتداد رشته کوههای مرتفع تیان شان و نزدیکی مرزهای قرقیزستان قرار گرفته است.  این شهر از سال ١٩٢٧ تا سال ١٩٩٧ به عنوان پایتخت "قزاقستان" به شمار می‌رفت تا آنکه در این سال پایتخت به شهر "آستانا" انتقال یافت. نام شهر آلماتی  در زبان قزاقی برگرفته از کلمه  آلما به معنی سیب و آلماتی به مفهوم شهر پر از سیب است. همچنین در نسخ قدیمی بجا مانده از مجارستان نام این شهر را آلما اتا به معنی پدر سیب می‌دانند که به نظر مفهوم خاصی را نمی‌رساند امروزه سیب به عنوان نماد این شهر شناخته می‌شود. از سوی دیگر برخی از اندیشمندان و تاریخ‌شناسان ایرانی معتقدند نام این شهر تغییر یافته آلوه آتا که در ریشه سکایی – ایرانی آن کوه عقاب نامیده می‌شده گرفته شده است.
٤ - اقوام ایرانی‌ تبار سکیت: سکاها در زبان آشوری اشکوز نامیده می‌شدند و پارسیان و هندی‌ها آنان را سَکا می‌ نامیدند. آن چنان که در کتیبه‌های هخامنشی نگاشته شده؛ سَکَ یا سَکا نامی است که در زبان پارسی باستان برای سکاهایی که از طرف آسیای میانه با ایرانیان سروکار داشتند، به کار رفته ‌است. سکاها در نوشته ‌های هرودوت موسوم به سکیث هستند. در فرهنگ شاهنامه، زیر واژهٔ سگسار آمده‌است: «از مرز و بوم‌هایی که داهیان در آن جای گرفتند» و راجع به داهیان زیر کلمهٔ سکزی می‌خوانیم: «... داه گروهی بودند از آرین که در دشت خوارزم جای گرفتند و پس از آن در کنار جنوبی دریای خزر جایگیر شدند. از آنان مردم بستوه آمدند. پادشاه ایران گروه داه را پراکنده ساخت. یک دسته از آنان را به زابلستان کوچانید و آنان را سکزی خواندند... و دشت خوارزم داهستان نامیده شد که مخفف آن دهستان است و اکنون به دهستان معروف است...».
۵ - فارابی: ابونصر محمد بن محمد طرخانی ملقب به فارابی، حدود سال ۲۵۷ هجری قمری (۸۷۰میلادی) در دهکدهٔ «وسیج» از ناحیهٔ پاراب (فاراب) در فرارود (شهر اُترار کنونی در جنوب قزاقستان) یا پاریاب (فاریاب) خراسان در افغانستان کنونی به دنیا آمد. فارابی، از بزرگترین فیلسوفان ایرانی سده سوم و چهارم هجری است. اهمیت او بیشتر به علت شرح‌هایی است که بر آثار ارسطو نگاشته و به سبب همین مشروحات او را معلم ثانی خوانده‌اند و در مقام بعد از ارسطو قرار داده‌اند. پدر و مادر فارابی ایرانی‌تبار بودند. خود او نیز ایرانی‌تبار بود.
برای آگاهی بیشتر پیرامون "فارابی" و شرح زندگی او، علاقه مندان می توانند به نوشتار"فارابی: نخستین دانشمند ایرانی در رشته ی علم و هنر موسیقی" (به زبان انگلیسی) اثر همین نگارنده مراجعه نمایند.
٦ - - برگزاری هفته ی زبان فارسی در دانشگاه فارابی آلماتی در قزاقستان: اساتید و دانشجویان زبان فاراسی با همکاری رایزنی فرهنگی ایران از تاریخ ١١ تا ١٦ فروردین ١٣٩٢ هفته ی بزرگداشت زبان فارسی را در اتاق ایران و مرکز ایرانشناسی دانشگاه فارابی آلماتی برگزار کردند. در طول این هفته، نمایش نقاشی با موضوعات مختلف اخلاقی و اجتماعی و قرائت شعر و دکلمه و داستان و نمایش کلیپ های ادبی بر گرفته از زبان فارسی و فرهنگ و هنر ایرانی ازجمله برنامه هایی بود که دانشجویان اجرا کردند.
برخی فیلم ها و گزارش ها پیرامون قزاقستان
چهره ی واقعی قزاقستان
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iuJbn4WmKB4
پروژه ی اکسپو (نمایشگاه جهانی) در سال ٢٠١٧ در قزاقستان
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Bk46G8HPIw
اسب های بزکشی در قزاقستان
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hLl_jcU-U1Y
نگاهی به هفته ی مد در قزاقستان
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y_Awy-JNdsI
رقص شاد دختران و پسران در شهر آلماتی
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mSX_TPzTrBE
نوروز در دانشگاه فارابی آلماتی
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lXarUliTHvs
جشن سدره پوشی (آیین زرتشتی شدن) در شهر آلماتی قزاقستان
http://www.oshihan.org/Pages/Kazakhistan.htm
آیین زرتشتی در قزاقستان و آسياي مركزي
http://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/Religions/iranian/Zarathushtrian/conversion_to_zoroastrianism.htm 

ب - در سرزمین ترکمنستان

١ - ترکمنستان: کشوری است در آسیای میانه و از جنوب با افغانستان و ایران، از شمال با ازبکستان و قزاقستان و از باختر با دریای خزر همسایه و از طریق این دریا با کشورهای جمهوری آذربایجان و روسیه نیز همسایه‌ است... بیشتر مردم این کشور از قوم ترکمن هستند و به زبان ترکمنی صحبت می‌کنند. ۸۰٪ درصد مساحت ترکمنستان را صحرای قره‌قوم تشکیل می‌دهد که دارای آب و هوای خشک است. ولی ناحیه ی رشته کوه کپه داغ در جنوب کشور و نزدیکی مرز ایران آب و هوای مناسبی دارد و "عشق آباد" یا "اشک آباد" پایتخت ترکمنستان، "مرو" و سایر شهرهای مهم در این ناحیه هستند. ترکمنستان دارای منابع بزرگ گاز است که آن را به کشورهای مختلف از جمله ایران صادر می‌کند. رشد اقتصادی این کشور در سال ۲۰۰۷ براساس آمار صندوق بین‌المللی پول حدود ۱۱٫۵٪ بوده‌است که آن را یازدهمین کشور دارای رشد اقتصادی سریع می ‌سازد.
ترکمنستان در ادوار مختلف منطقه استراتژیک و مهمی برای حکومت‌های منطقه بوده ‌است. این کشور در زمان هخامنشیان از ساتراپ‌های خوارزم، پارت و مارگیان ا(مرو) تشکیل شده ‌است. در قرن چهارم قبل از میلاد اسکندر مقدونی آسیای مرکزی را فتح نمود و جاده ی ابریشم را بنیان نهاد و به این منطقه رونق اقتصادی و فرهنگی بخشید و اهمیت این منطقه را دوچندان نمود. هشتاد سال بعد در شهر "نِسا" پادشاهی اشکانیان پایه‌گذاری شد و پس از اشکانیان و با روی کار آمدن ساسانیان "نسا" اهمیت خود را از دست نداده و از شهر‌ها ی مهم آن دوران بود. قرن هفتم میلادی این منطقه جزو ممالک اسلامی گردید و با نقل مکان مامون به شهر "مرو" این شهر به عنوان پایتخت خراسان بزرگ شناخته شد. در اواسط قرن یازدهم میلادی سلسله سلجوقیان امپراطوری خود را در ترکمنستان کنونی تشکیل و بزودی از شرق تا چین و  از غرب تا دریای مدیترانه گسترش داد و این قدرت تا قرن دوازدهم ادامه داشت و با حمله چنگیز مغول امپراطوری سلجوقیان سرنگون گردید.
٢ - كشور تركمنستان: درجنوب غربي آسياي مركزي ‌است و از شمال و شرق با ازبكستان، از غرب به درياي خزر و از جنوب به ايران (استان هاي مازندران و خراسان)، از جنوب شرقی به افغانستان و از شمال غربی به قزاقستان منتهي مي شود. وجود مرز آبي با درياي خزر اهميت اين كشور را دو چندان كرده است. اقتصاد اين كشور پس از يك دهه ركود درسال ١٩٩٩مجدداً به رونق گذشته بازگشت، بطوريكه رشد واقعي توليد ناخالص اين كشور در اين سال ١٢ درصد بود، اين بهبود در رشد را عمدتاً ناشي از فروش گاز طبيعي اين كشور به ايران و روسيه مي‌دانند. سواي از نفت و گاز, توليد و صادرات پنبه نيز بخش مهمي از درآمدهاي اين كشور را تشكيل مي‌دهد اما نبايد فراموش كرد كه درحال حاضر صادرات پنبه اين كشور تنها به ميزان  نيمي از صادرات پنبه اين كشور در زمان شوروي سابق مي باشد. از ديگر اقلام مهم صادراتي اين كشور ميتوان به قالي و برق اشاره كرد. دولت تركمنستان در دوره پس از استقلال با آگاهي از شرايط موجود اقتصادي در جهت قطع رشته‌ هاي وابستگي به مسكو و ديگر جماهير و پايه‌ريزي يك اقتصاد ملي گام برداشت. واقع شدن در مسير جاده ی ابريشم (كه آسياي دور را به اروپا وصل مي كند)، مجاورت با درياي خزر، راه آبي كشورهاي منطقه به درياي سياه و امكان ارتباط با آب هاي گرم خليج فارس و اقيانوس هند از طريق ايران، مسئولين اين كشور را به بهره‌گيري و ايجاد زيرساخت هاي لازم جهت استفاده هر چه بيشتر از اين امكانات واداشته است.
٣ - شهر مرو مرکز استان مرو در ترکمنستان شهر باستانی آریایی ها: مَرو مرکز استان مرو در ترکمنستان است و در انتهای جنوبی بیابان قره قوم و به فاصلهٔ نود مایلی شمال شرقی سرخس واقع است و از رود مرغاب (مرورود) مشروب می‌شود. به ساکنان مرو در فارسی مَروَزی گفته می‌شود به معنی «زیَنده در مرو». مردم نواحی شرقی خراسان مرو را به نام مور (بر وزن دور به‌معنی محیط و پیرامون) و باشندگان آن را موری (بر وزن دوری به‌معنی بشقاب) می‌گویند... پیشینه ی مرو به پیش از میلاد مسیح می‌رسد. مرو از شهرهای باستانی آریاییان و از مراکز فرهنگی ایران بوده‌است. داریوش اول در سنگ‌نبشته ی بیستون مرو را مَرگَوش نامیده و با باختر اسم برده است. اما جغرافیانویسان قدیم آن را مَرْگیانا نامیده و جداگانه ذکر کرده‌اند. مرگیان یا مرو از سرزمین‌های تابع اشکانیان بشمار می‌آمد.
مرو در دورهٔ ساسانیان آباد بوده‌است. یزدگرد سوم آخرین پادشاه ساسانی پس از شکست جنگ نهاوند (۲۱ هجری/۶۴۲ میلادی) به ری، اصفهان، کرمان، بلخ و سپس مرو رفت و از شاه چین و خاقان ترک کمک خواست اما چون از سوءنیت ماهوی سوری مرزبان مرو نسبت به خود آگاه شد به آسیابانی به نام خسرو پناه برد و او یزدگرد را به طمع لباس فاخرش کشت (۳۱ ه‍ . ق/۶۵۱ میلادی). از آن پس سرزمین های شرقی ایران یکی پس از دیگری و از جمله مرو بتصرف مسلمانان درآمد و سلسله‌ های ایرانی یکی پس از دیگری بر این ناحیه حکومت کردند... در دورهٔ صفویه و افشاریه و قاجاریه گهگاه سرکشان نواحی مخصوصاً ازبکان و خان های خیوه، مرو را مورد تاخت و تاز قرار ‌دادند. در دورهٔ قاجاریه  تعرض ترکمانان و حکام اطراف امری عادی شده بود بدین مناسبت ناصرالدین شاه قاجار در اواخر سال ۱۲۷۶ ه‍ .ق، حمزه میرزا حشمت‌ الدوله را به همراهی قوام‌ الدوله آشتیانی با چهل هزار سپاهی روانهٔ حدود مرو کرد. اما این لشکر بسبب بی‌احتیاطی و اختلافی که بین حشمت ‌الدوله و قوام‌ الدوله بود از ترکمانان شکست خورد و روس ها که به حدود شمال دریاچهٔ آرال و مشرق دریای خزر رسیده و به تصرف ترکستان شرقی و غربی و دره‌های سیحون و جیحون شروع کرده بودند به نواحی تحت تابعیت ایران نیز دست انداختند، از جمله خیوه را در ۱۲۷۰ و تاشکند و سمرقند و بخارا را در ۱۲۸۱ و ۱۲۸۵ اشغال کردند و با استیلای بر این نواحی به درهٔ آرال اترک و ترکمن صحرا نزدیک شدند و در ۱۲۹۸ ه‍ .ق در گوگ‌ تپه ترکمانان تکه را بکلی از پای درآوردند و سرانجام در محرم ۱۲۹۹ ه‍ .ق. خط مرزی کنونی بین دولت ایران و روسیه به موجب معاهده‌ای تغیین و مشخص شد.
برخی فیلم ها و گزارش ها پیرامون ترکمنستان
مدرسه ايرانيان در عشق آباد ترکمنستان
http://www.farsnews.com/newstext.php?nn=8807020276
نمونه ای از برنامه ی رقص و موسیقی در ترکمنستان
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nyev0nwMuEg
رقص های محلی در ترکمنستان
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YNJMOgEqc20
فیلم مستند پیرامون ترکمنستان
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2CqJg498tTU
یادداشت پایانی
١ - اگر چه مشهور ترین دانشگاه در شهر آلماتی قزاقستان به احترام فیلسوف نامدار ایران به نام "فارابی" خوانده شده و این امر شایان تحسین است اما اضافات "ال" و "قزاق" به "فارابی" بسیار اسف انگیز است و جای اعتراض دارد.
٢ - با آرزوی بهترین ها برای همه ی مردمان قزاقستان و ترکمنستان
 دکتر منوچهر سعادت نوری
 
منابع و مآخذ
قزاقستان: تارنمای دانشنامهٔ آزاد ویکی‌پدیا
قزاق ها: تارنمای دانشنامه ی ایرانیکا - تارنمای لغت نامه دهخدا
شهر آلماتی ( آلماتا) پرجمعیت‌ترین شهر قزاقستان: تارنمای پایگاه اطلاع رسانی قزاقستان - تارنمای باشگاه خبرنگاران
اقوام ایرانی‌ تبار سکیت: تارنمای دانشنامهٔ آزاد ویکی‌پدیا
فارابی: تارنمای دانشنامهٔ آزاد ویکی‌پدیا - تارنمای گزیده ای از نوشتارها
برگزاری هفته ی زبان فارسی در دانشگاه فارابی آلماتی در قزاقستان: بسیاری تارنماها
برخی فیلم ها و گزارش ها پیرامون قزاقستان: تارنمای یوتیوب
ترکمنستان: تارنمای دانشنامهٔ آزاد ویکی‌پدیا
كشور تركمنستان - نوشتاری از وحيد احمدي: تارنمای مطالعات درياي خزر
شهر مرو مرکز استان مرو در ترکمنستان شهر باستانی آریایی ها: تارنمای دانشنامهٔ آزاد ویکی‌پدیا
برخی فیلم ها و گزارش ها پیرامون ترکمنستان: تارنمای خبرگزاری فارس - تارنمای یوتیوب
Aryans in Kazakhstan & Turkmenistan
Abstract: Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the Neolithic Age: the region's climate and terrain are best suited for nomads practicing pastoralism. Archaeologists believe that humans first domesticated the horse in the region's vast steppes. Central Asia was originally inhabited by Indo-Iranians. The best known of those groups was the nomadic Scythians.. Merv (in Turkmenistan), formerly Achaemenid Satrapy of Margiana; was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road. It is claimed that Merv was briefly the largest city in the world in the 12th century....Some Reports and Vidoes about Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Naming an important university after Farabi in Kazakhstan, is believed to be consistent with a respect to the famous Iranian scientist and philosopher. But those additional prefixes such as al- and kazakh (as used by the official Website of Farabi University in Kazakhstan) are awfully incorrect and need to be strongly protested: Manouchehr Saadat Noury, PhD
http://iranian.com/posts/aryans-in-kazakhstan-amp-turkmenistan-39608

گزیده ای از نوشتارها
http://msnselectedarticles.blogspot.ca/2014/10/blog-post_12.html
بخش های پیشین ایرانیان درپهنه ی سرزمین نیاکان آریایی
http://msnselectedarticles.blogspot.ca/2014/04/blog-post_17.html

First Iranian Expert in the Art and Science of Music: Farabi

INTRODUCTION: Among many ancient societies that shaped the history of human civilization, Iran is considered to be one of the few, which preserved steadily and patiently its distinct identity through centuries. And that is mirrored in its literary and cultural heritage, in its superb and lovely tradition of decorative arts and handicrafts, in its outstanding legacy in architecture, and particularly in its fabulous and stylish musical culture. The Persian Mythical King, Jamshid, has been credited with the invention of music. The writings of Greek Historians like Herodotus and Xenophon suggest that music played an important role in court life and religious ceremonies during Achamenid era (550-331 BC). During Sassanid Dynasty (226-642 AD), high-ranking status was conferred to court poet and musicians such as Baarbod, Nakissa, and Raamtin. Although the Arab invasion of 625 AD regrettably suppressed the musical development in Iran, Abbasid Caliphs (750-1258 AD), inspired by Iranians, reestablished music at the courts, and Iranian musicians were scattered throughout the Muslim World. Mohammad Farkhan Farabi (MFF), Pur Sina, and Safey-e-Din Ormavi, are but a few among the group of outstanding Iranian musical scholars in ancient Iran. In this article the life story of MFF, the First Iranian Expert in the Art and Science of Music and his contributions to music and many other fields of knowledge are studied and discussed.
 
HIS LIFE: Mohammad Farkhan Farabi (also named as Abu Nasr Farabi in Arabic Literature) was born on 1 October 870, when Nasr I (864–892) of Samanid Dynasty was in power in Khorasaan and Bukhara. At the same time, Ya'ghub Laith (869–879), the founder of Saffarid Dynasty was also in power in Sistaan. In present-day Iran, MFF's birthday has been marked as the National Music Day on Iranian Calendar. The older Persian form Paryab, for Faryab, is given in the historical account of Hodudol-Aalam (a geography book written by an unknown author) for MFF's birthplace, and as noted by historian Ibn-e-Nadim, MFF's origin lies in Faryab in Khorasaan. Some historians, most unlikely, claim that Farabi was born in the small village of Wasij near Farab in what is today Turkmenistan. MFF is known as Phrarabius in West and as Alfarabi in Arab world (where the Arabs intentionally add the prefixes as al, abu, ibn, and so on to mislead the readers). His name also originated the Portuguese word of [alfarrbio] meaning an old and a thick book.
MFF was the son of an Iranian army commander who belonged to a noble family. He completed his earlier education at Faryab of Khorasaan and in Bokhara, and in 901 he went to Baghdad to pursue his higher education. According to some researchers, MFF studied under a Christian physician, and acquired mastery over several foreign languages (Greek, Turkish, Arabic, and Assyrian), and many fields of knowledge. He was also a student of Bashir Matta Yuness, the great translator and interpreter of Greek Philosophy. MFF lived and remained in Baghdad for 40 years until 941. That was the time that members of Buyyid Family (in Persian: Khandaan-e-Booyeh or Aal-e-Booyeh) were spreading their powers and commands around Iran and Abbasid Caliphs were becoming weak and weaker. It should be noted that in 945, Iranian family of Buyyid overthrew the Caliph and they ruled Baghdad and most of Iraq and Syria until 1055.
During his early years, MFF worked as a Judge (in Persian: Daavar or Ghaazi), but later on he took up teaching as his profession. As a physician, MFF also practiced Medicine treating his patients free of any charge. In the course of his career, he had suffered great hardships and at one time he was also the caretaker of a garden. MFF traveled to many distant lands and stayed for some times in Damascus (Syria) and in Cairo (Egypt), but repeatedly came back to Baghdad. Once, on a visit to Mecca, not so much for religious as for philosophical purposes, MFF returned through Syria, and he stopped at the court of the King Saif-o-Dowleh Hamedani (SDH), a member of Buyyid family, who was renowned and recognized as the patron of learning at the time. [It is also reported that MFF went to India to visit the ruler SDH there, which is most unlikely]. In the court of SDH in Syria, MFF presented himself in his traveling outfit and dress, in the presence of that King and his courtiers; and, without invitation, coolly sat himself down upon the sofa, beside SDH's son, the Prince. The courtiers and wise men were indignant and resentful; and the SDH, who did not know the intruder, was at first inclined to follow their examples. SDH turned to one of his officers, and ordered him to drive out the presumptuous stranger from the room; but MFF, without moving, dared them to lay hands upon him; and, turned himself calmly to the Prince, remarked that the Prince did not know who was his guest, or he would treat him with honor, not with violence. SDH, instead of being still further incensed, admired MFF's coolness; and requested him to sit still closer to him on the sofa, entered into a long conversation with him upon science and divine philosophy. All the court was charmed with MFF. Questions for discussion were propounded, on all of which MFF showed superior knowledge. He convinced every one that ventured to dispute with him; and spoke so eloquently upon Philosophy, Medicine, Chemistry and many other fields. One of the learned men among the audience, inquired whether a man who knew so many sciences was acquainted with music also? MFF made no reply, but merely requested that a lute (in Persian: Barbat) should be brought him. The lute was brought; and he played such tender melodies, that all the court was melted into tears. He then changed his theme, and played airs so energetic and sprightly, that he set the serious and important dignitaries, SDH and others, started dancing as fast as their legs could carry them. MFF then sobered them again by a mournful strain, and made them sob and sigh as if broken-hearted. SDH, highly delighted with his powers, entreated him to stay, offering him every inducement that wealth, power, and dignity could supply; but MFF resolutely refused all the offers, and left SDH after a while.
HIS CONTRIBUTIONS: MFF contributed considerably to science, philosophy, logic, sociology, medicine, mathematics and music. He may rightly be acclaimed as one of the all time's greatest philosophers in the history of Iran and also in the Muslim World. A well-known story tells how Pur Sina who came after MFF, sought in vain to understand Aristotle's Metaphysics, and it was only through a book by MFF on the intentions of the Metaphysics that helped Pur Sina to understand it finally. MFF's philosophical legacy is large, and he has come to be known as the Second Teacher or Second Master (in Persian: Dovomeen Amoozegaar or Moullem-e-Saani), with Aristotle being the First. In the arena of metaphysics, MFF has been designated as the Father of Neoplatonism in Muslim World, and while he was also saturated with Aristotle’s views and certainly deploys the vocabulary of Aristotle, it is this Neoplatonic dimension, which dominates much of his corpus. This is apparent in his most famous book on the Opinions & Ideas expressed by the Citizens of a Perfect City of the Citizens of a Perfect City or Aaray-e-Ahleh Madineh-e-Faazeleh (AMF), which is far from being a copy or a clone of Plato's Republic, and it is imbued with the Neoplatonic concept of God. AMF is also a significant early contribution to sociology and political science. His influence was wide and extended not only to major philosophers of his time such as Pur Sina, and to lesser mortals such as Yahya Adi, Sijistani, Amiri and Tawhidi, but also to major thinkers of Christian Medieval Europe including Thomas Aquinas.
MFF was also a great expert in the art and science of music. He invented several musical instruments. The invention of Quanun (in Persian and Arabic: Ghaanoon), an Iranian musical instrument, has been attributed to him. MFF also contributed to the knowledge of what we now know as [the musical notes]. It is well documented that MFF was an accomplished composer of music and many songs composed by him are still sung by Dervishes to this day. [The word Dervish, in Persian: Darvish, refers, especially in European Languages, to members of a group of Sufi Muslims known for their extreme poverty and austerity]. He was very well familiar to play lute, and as noted earlier he could play his instrument so well that people start to laugh or weep at will, depending on the piece. He also wrote a book on music, entitled as the Great Book of Music or GBM (in Persian: Ketab-e-Arzeshmand-e-Moosighi, or Ketab-e-Moosighi-e-Kabir). In 1978, Iranian physicist and scholar, Dr Mehdi Barkeshli, published a book entitled as Farabi's Scientific Ideas About Music (in Persian: Andisheh-haay-e-Elmy-e-Farabi Darbaareh Moosighi), in which a general glance was given over GBM, and the relationship of MFF's musical theory with the contemporary Iranian Music was studied and discussed. Although many books authored by MFF have been lost, 107 are known. Out of those 107 books, 43 are on logic, 11 on metaphysics, 8 on ethics, 7 on political science, 27 on music, medicine and sociology, and 11 are as commentaries. Many of his famous books in science and music are still taught at some of the institutions in many countries around the world.
HIS END:  At 80, he died as a bachelor in Damascus in 950. (Some documents also indicate that MFF passed away in 954). The circumstances of his death are not clear; some accounts portray him dying naturally in Damascus while at least one holds that he was mugged and killed on the road from Damascus to Ascalon. Ascalon is also called Ashkelon (in Persian: Essghalaan), and it is an ancient seaport on the coast of Mediterranean Sea just north of Gaza.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:  As noted, MFF was not only an expert in the art and science of music, but he was also a philosopher, a physician, a chemist, and an expert in social and political sciences. MFF had a great desire to understand the Universe and Humankind. He liked to understand the position of the Man within the Universe, so as to ascertain a comprehensive and intellectual picture of the world and of society as a whole. When he undertook his meticulous study of ancient philosophy, particularly of Plato and Aristotle, he absorbed the components of Platonic and Neo-Platonic philosophy, which he then integrated into his knowledge of the Koran. However, he combined these two in a new and unique way: He was the first Iranian philosopher to separate philosophy and theology, influencing the scholars of many different religions who followed him. He concluded that human reason, the tool of the philosopher, was superior to revelation, the tool of religion, resulting in the advantage of philosophy over religion. He claimed that philosophy was based on intellectual perception, while religion was based on imagination. He thus attributed impressive characteristics to the philosopher, and advocated the philosopher as the ideal head of state. In his writings, MFF noted that the best ruler for a Muslim state would be an educated King, chosen for his intelligence, and the one who has studied in science, philosophy, and some other fields of knowledge. MFF blamed political upheavals in the Islamic world of his time on the fact that the state was not run by philosophers, whose superior powers of reason and intellect would result in ideal leadership.
MFF was a physician and his psychological view of humanity was that an isolated individual cannot achieve perfection by himself, but requires the aid of many other individuals. Therefore, to achieve any sort of perfection, every person needed to interact and associate with others. In terms of political thought, MFF described the ideal state as the one with a duty to provide for the physical well being of the citizens, as well as helping people towards religious salvation.
Epilogues (Posted August 2012)
1. Safi-o-Din Ormavi (aka Safi al-Din al-Urmawi or Safi al-Din Abd al-Mu'min ibn Yusuf ibn al-Fakhir al-Urmawi) was born c. 1216 AD in Urmia, died in Baghdad in 1294 AD. He was a renowned musician and writer on the theory of music. Ormavi is perhaps best known for developing in the thirteenth century the widely used seventeen-tone scale later expanded to the Arabic scale of twenty-four quarter tones. He has written two important books about theory of Persian art music of his time, which they are Al-advar and Al-sharafiyyeh (View here: 1 & 2).
2. View more info about Lute (in Persian: Baebat, aka Oode) here: 1 & 2
3. The Farabi's book on the Opinions & Ideas expressed by the Citizens of a Perfect City or Aaray-e-Ahleh Madineh-e-Faazeleh was originally written in Arabic. The Iranian scolar Seyyed Jaafar Sajjadi translated the above famous book of Farabi from Arabic into Persian (View here).
4. View more info about the Iranian musical instrument of Quanun (in Persian and Arabic: Ghaanoon) here 5. According to Farabi, the best ruler for the Muslim state would be a "philosopher-king", which is actually a concept described in Plato's Republic (View here).
6. A Persian Text on his biography and about the Political Phlosophy of Farabi may be viewed online here
7. A Persian Text on the Philosophies of Plato and Farabi, a comparative study, may be viewed online here
Manouchehr Saadat Noury, PhD
 
REFERENCES
Black, D. (2005):  Psychology: Soul and Intellect in Adamson, P and Taylor, R, ed., the Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy, Cambridge University Press.
Butterworth, C. (2005): Ethical and Political Philosophy in Adamson, P and Taylor, R., ed., the Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy, Cambridge University Press.
Corbin, H., Nasr, H. and U. Yahya (1993): History of Islamic Philosophy, ed., Keagan Paul International.
Fakhry, M. (2002): Al-Farabi, Founder of Islamic Neoplatonism: His Life, Works, and Influence, Oxford: Oneworld Publications.
Saadat Noury, M. (2005): Online Articles on the First Iranians.
Saadat Noury, M. (2005): Various Articles on the Persian Culture and the History of Iran.
Various Sources (2005): Notes and News about Iranian Scientist Farabi.
Wikipedia Encyclopedia (2005): Online Articles on Farabi (in Persian and in English).

جمعه ۱۸ مهر ۱۳۹۳ ه‍.ش.

=== A Notable Canadian Pharmacist: Pamela Orfali ===


General Information: Pharmacists, also known as chemists or druggists, are healthcare professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use. A pharmacist is a member of the health care team directly involved in patient care. Pharmacists undergo university-level education to understand biochemical mechanisms of action of drugs, drug uses, and therapeutic roles, side effects, potential drug interactions, and monitoring parameters. This is mated to anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology. Pharmacists interpret and communicate this specialized knowledge to patients, physicians, and other health care providers. Among other licensing requirements, different countries require pharmacists to hold either a Bachelor of Pharmacy or Doctor of Pharmacy degree. The most common pharmacist positions are that of a community pharmacist (also referred to as a retail pharmacist, first-line pharmacist or dispensing chemist), or a hospital pharmacist, where they instruct and counsel on the proper use and adverse effects of medically prescribed drugs and medicines. In most countries, the profession is subject to professional regulation. Depending on the legal scope of practice, pharmacists may contribute to prescribing (also referred to as "pharmacist prescriber") and administering certain medications (e.g., immunizations) in some jurisdictions. Pharmacists may also practice in a variety of other settings, including industry, wholesaling, research, academia, military, and government.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacist
The Number of Pharmacists: In the last few years, the number of pharmacists has grown sharply. Employment growth in this occupation depends primarily on the degree of prescription drug use, developments in the field of practice of pharmacists and the number of pharmacy graduates. The sharp increase should continue over the next few years.
http://www.servicecanada.gc.ca/eng/qc/job_futures/statistics/3131.shtml
Pharmacy in Canada: Pharmacy is changing. Pharmacists are taking on expanded roles and are increasingly being recognized as the medication management experts of the health care team. Given the increasing numbers of medications, our aging population and the growing cost of pharmaceuticals, pharmacists are key to ensuring safe, cost-effective drug therapy for Canadians.
http://www.pharmacists.ca/index.cfm/pharmacy-in-canada/
Pharmacists in Canada: The Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) is the national professional organization for pharmacists in Canada. Specific requirements for practice vary across provinces, but generally include a Bachelor's of Science in Pharmacy from a recognized university, successful completion of a national board examination through the Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada, and practical experience through an apprenticeship/internship program. The vast majority (80%) of Canada's licensed pharmacists work in community pharmacies, another 15 percent in hospital or institutional pharmacies, and the remainder work in situations that may not legally require licensed pharmacists such as associations, pharmaceutical companies, and consulting firms.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacist#Canada
A Notable Canadian Pharmacist, Pamela Orfali: One of the notable Canadian pharmacists is Pamela Orfali who lives and works in Montreal. Here are some info about her:
Her Education: 1. John Molson School of Business: Graduate degree, Business Administration, Management and Operation (2013–2014). 2. Université de Montréal/ University of Montreal: Bachelor's degree, Pharmacy (2006–2010). 3. Collège Stanislas: Baccalauréat Français, Sciences.
Her Experiences: 1. Pharmacist Owner/ Pharmaprix at Monkland Avenue, Montreal (January 2014– Present). 2. Pharmacist/ Pharmaprix (2010–January 2014). 3. Pharmacy Student/ Lab Technician: Pharmaprix (2006–August 2010). 4. Pharmacy Intern: CHUM Notre-Dame (May 2009 – August 2009). 5. Research Assistant: CHUM - Universite de Montreal (June 2005–August 2006).
http://ca.linkedin.com/pub/pamela-orfali/69/59a/b99
Some Meanings of Pamela
1. Pamela is Greek and means Sweet as Honey. The name "Pam" is rarely used by a true Pamela. Pamela is a Lady in all situations and represents beauty within. Loving, very forgiving to a fault, sweet, kind, christian/godly qualities, southern values, gift giver, flashy romantic dresser, encouraging, brightens a room, friendly, fun, loving the glitz and glamor of life. So nice some people think she is a fake but she is "the real thing".
2. Pamela: The most beautiful girl in the entire world. She has the most beautiful smile ever. It's bright and sparkling and it brightens everyone's day. She is just perfect.
3. Pamela: Truest of friends, good listener. Witty and charming. Beautiful eyes and soul. Passionate and caring, and can be fiercely stubborn and strong willed. Does not like to be told no. A perfectionist who often causes turmoil for herself. The girl next door, but has an alluring quality about her. Pamela is a complete package that comes with a wide variety of attributes. Pamelas are all a little different, each one is a one of a kind, unique in her own way.
http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Pamela
 Epilogues
1. According to many patients who visited Pamela Orfali, she is a very helpful, courteous and  knowledgeable person and a very experienced pharmacist. Lots of people also admit that Pamela Orfali is the best pharmacist they have ever visited.
2. With best wishes for Pamela Orfali, and for all who work in the field of health care and social services.
Manouchehr Saadat Noury, PhD

پنجشنبه ۱۷ مهر ۱۳۹۳ ه‍.ش.

First Iranian who set up the First Tea Plantations in Iran

INTRODUCTION: Although the tradition of drinking imported tea (mostly from India and China) among some groups of people in Iran trace back to the end of 15th century, the cultivation of this plant in order to market a native product was actually started around one century ago. It was only at the beginning of the 20th century that the first crop of Iranian tea was produced and sold on the local market. The reliable documents indicate that the tea plantations in Iran were firstly set up by Mohammad Mirza Kashefolsaltaneh (MMK) in Lahijan, a region in the northern province of Gilan between 1895 and 1902. At the time, MMK was about 30 years old and he was working as an officer in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (in Persian: Vezaarat-e Omor-e Khaarejeh). In this article, the life story and the works of MMK as the First Iranian who Set Up the First Tea Plantations in Iran will be briefly studied and discussed.
HIS EARLY LIFE: MMK was born to Asadollah Nayebol-Eyaleh (ANE) and Jahan Aara Azizolsaltaneh (JAA) in the first day of Iranian calendar on 21 March 1865. He was born in Torbat-e Heydarieh, a city in the Razavi Khorasan province of Iran. It may be worthy to note that his birthplace Torbat-e Heydarieh is a city which is famous for its Saffron (in Persian: Zafaran), and it is currently among the first rank places in the world for producing Saffron. MMK's mom JAA was the first child of Prince Ghahreman Mirza who was the son of Abass Mirza, the Crown Prince to Fath Ali Shah Qajar (ruled 1797-1834). In 1866, ANE and JAA along with the newborn MMK moved to Tehran, the capital city of Iran, and resided in a house next to the Golesstan Palace.
HIS EDUCATION: In Tehran, while MMK was about 6 to 7 years old his parents hired a mentor to teach him Persian Literature and Arabic Language. MMK then completed his high school education in Darolfonoon which was the best scientific and technical institution of Iran at the time. It was in Darolfonoon where he also learned French Language and the principles of various Sciences and Techniques.
HIS EARLY WORKS: At 16 and upon his graduation from Darolfonoon, MMK joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) where he worked as the Secretary to the Minister of Foreign Affairs Nassorlah Khan Moshiroldoleh. In 1881, MMK was appointed as the Second Secretary (in Persian: Dabir-e Douvom) to the Iranian Embassy in Paris, France. Over there, while working in the Embassy he also started to study Law in the University of Paris (Sorbonne) where he got his BA degree in Administrative Law. In 1886, he was promoted as the First Deputy to the Iranian Ambassador to France. In 1889 after eight years living in Paris, MMK was called to return to Tehran and he was appointed as the Special Secretary to translate French to Persian as Dr Fevrier, the Royal Court Physician, was giving medical advice to Naserddin Shah Qajar (ruled 1848-1896).
In 1894, MMK left the Royal Court and he was then appointed as the Khorasan Deputy Governor (in Persian: Nayebol-Eyaleh or Moaaven-e Ostandaar) working in his birthplace Torbat-e Heydarieh. In 1895, at the age of 30, MMK married to Gohar-e Graan Maayeh. In the same year, Mohsen Khan Moshiroldoleh appointed him as the Consul to the Iranian Consulate General located in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), India. In 1897 when he was back to Iran, he set up the first tea plantations in the country. In 1904, he left Iran for Paris where he worked as the Minister Plenipotentiary (in Persian: Vazir Mokhtar) of Iran to France. In 1906, MMK was called back home where he was appointed as the first Mayor of Tehran. In 1908, he resigned as the mayor of Tehran and resumed his works at MFA.
HIS EFFECTIVE ROLE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEA INDUSTRY IN IRAN: As the Consul of Iran to India under British rule, MMK knew the Brits would not allow him to learn about the secrets of tea production, as it was their biggest business in India in those periods of time. So being fluent in French, MMK pretended to be a French laborer and started to work at the tea plantations and factories in India to learn how to produce tea. Ultimately his plan was to take back some samples of Indian tea to Iran to cultivate. He was successful in this endeavor only because of his diplomatic immunity which stopped the Brits from searching his secretly stashed samples. In 1897, he brought those samples together with the vases of various plants like coffee (in Persian: Ghahveh), pepper (in Persian: Felfel), cannabis (in Persian: Shahdaaneh), kenaf or hemp (in Persian: Kanaf), cinnamon (in Persian: Darchin), cardamom (in Persian: Hel), mango (in Persian: Anbeh), quinine (in Persian: Ganeh Ganeh), Camphor (in Persian: Kafoor) , turmeric (in Persian: Zard Choobeh), and ginger (in Persian: Zanjebil) to Iran. He set up the first tea plantations in Lahijan, a region in the province of Gilan. Plantations then developed rapidly in other parts of Gilan, and the places located between the south shore of the Caspian Sea and the Albourz Mountains.
In every tea plantation that MMK established in Gilan, many farmers and laborers could get some training in different aspects of tea cultivation. MMK also made a trip to Russia in 1902 and hired two tea experts to work and to assist in the training programs of the plantations. Around the early years of the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi (1925-1941) who initiated reforms marking the beginning of the modernization of Iran, an authoritative governmental office named as Tea Organization (in Persian: Sazmaan-e Chai) was founded and MMK was asked to direct it. As the Director of the Tea Organization he developed cultivation and production of tea in many parts of Gilan and the south shore of the Caspian Sea. Besides, MMK welcomed a group of Chinese experts as the advisors to the Tea Organization. He also made the arrangements to get the Chinese tea seeds and to purchase some Chinese Agricultural Machineries to be used in the plantations. As the result of much endeavor, the Tea Industry of Iran grew and developed rapidly when MMK was in charge. MMK was probably one of those guys who always whispered: "You got to believe that your effort can make a difference"!
Today, most Iranians know MMK as the Father of the Tea Industry of Iran (in Persian: Pedar-e Sanat-e Chai-e Iran).
HIS END: It is documented that MMK's life was ended due to a car accident in 1928. The accident which is still a mystery occurred on a road between Bushire and Shiraz in southern province of Fars. His tomb is located on a hillock overlooking the tea plantations of Lahijan and it is now a part of the Iran Tea Museum (in Persian: Moozeh-e Chai-e Iran).
EPILOGUE
Michael Rubin from the Washington Institute for Near East Policy noted that, "On 20 February 2001, hundreds of farmers growing tea in the Caspian Sea region demonstrated in front of the Department of Agriculture headquarters in Lahijan. They were protesting the importation of tea from abroad in deals arranged by relatives of high-level government officials. According to the protestors, more than 1000 Iranian tea plantations have gone bankrupt in recent months". And about six years later on 16 September 2007, Nima Akbarpour referred to the mismanagements observed in the Tea Museum of Iran and noted that many precious papers and documents displayed there have lost their fine qualities and they have been almost destroyed due to the exposure of the strong emissions of light and high level of humidity inside the museum.
Every single bone in the buried corpse of Kashefol Saltaneh within his grave is shivering as he witnesses all those unpleasant events happening in his sight!
Manouchehr Saadat Noury, PhD
 
REFERENCES
Akbarpour, N. (2007): Online Note on the Tea Museum in Lahijan, Osyan Net Website (in Persian).
ITTO Website (2009): Online Note and Image of Kashefol Saltaneh Tomb.
Kasraian, N. and Arshi, Z. (1995): The North of Iran, ed., Sekeh Press, Iran, (in Persian).
Kazemi, S. (1995): Haji Mirza Kashefol Saltaneh, ed., Sayeh Publications, Iran, (in Persian).
Rubin, M. (2001): Online Article on Iran's Burgeoning Discontent.
Saadat Noury, M. (2005): Online Note on Fath Ali Shah Qajar: About 17 Cities in the Collection of the Missing Moments.
Saadat Noury, M. (2007): Various Articles on the History of Iran.
Saadat Noury, M. (2008): Online Articles on Science.
Saadat Noury, M. (2009): Online Articles on First Iranians.
Tea Website (2009): Online Notes on "Tea Producing Countries: From the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea".
Various Sources (2009): Notes and News on Mohammad Mirza Kashefolsaltaneh.
Wikipedia Encyclopedia (2009): Online Note on Kashefolsaltaneh (in Persian).
Originally published online in 2009
http://iranian.com/main/blog/m-saadat-noury/first-iranian-who-set-first-tea-plantations-iran.html