شنبه ۲۶ مهر ۱۳۹۳ ه‍.ش.

== Life Expectancy in Iran and some other Countries ==

 General Information
1. Life expectancy is a statistical average of the number of years a human is expected to live; this will vary according to region and era. In the Bronze and Iron Age life expectancy was 26; the 2010 world average was 67.2. In Swaziland the average is 49.42 years; in Japan it is 82.6 years. The combination of high infant mortality and deaths in young adulthood from accidents, epidemics, plagues, wars, and childbirth, particularly before modern medicine was widely available, significantly lowers the overall life expectancy. But for those who survive early hazards, a life expectancy of sixty or seventy would not be uncommon. For example, a society with a life expectancy of 40 may have few people dying at age 40: most will die before 30 years of age or after 55. In countries with high infant mortality rates, life expectancy at birth is highly sensitive to the rate of death in the first few years of life. Because of this sensitivity to infant mortality, simple life expectancy at age zero can be subjected to gross misinterpretation, leading one to believe that a population with a low overall life expectancy will necessarily have a small proportion of older people. For example, in a hypothetical stationary population in which half the population dies before the age of five, but everybody else dies at exactly 70 years old, the life expectancy at age zero will be about 36 years, while about 25% of the population will be between the ages of 50 and 70... Life expectancy differs from maximum life span. Life expectancy is an average, computed over all people including those who die shortly after birth, those who die in early adulthood in childbirth or in wars, and those who live unimpeded until old age, whereas lifespan is an individual-specific concept and maximum lifespan is an upper bound rather than an average.
2. Life expectancy in countries around the world is growing, according to a new report from the World Health Organization, with most of the progress apparent in low-income countries. WHO said that in high-income countries, most of the gain in life expectancy is credited to fewer people dying before age 60 from heart disease and stroke.
For men, the top three countries for life expectancy in 2012 were: Iceland 81.2, Switzerland 80.7, and Australia, 80.5. For women, the top countries were: Japan 87.0, Spain 85.1, and Switzerland 85.1.
 In the USA
1. Average life expectancy in the United States reached an all-time high of 78.8 years in 2012, federal officials reported Wednesday Oct. 8, 2014. The increased life expectancy is likely due to Americans living healthier lifestyles, according to researchers from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
2. Americans' life expectancy rates are at a record high, but suicide rates are on the rise, according to a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report released on Wednesday Oct. 8, 2014. The study, which looked at 2012 U.S. mortality data, found Americans are expected to live longer than ever: life expectancy from birth reached 78.8 years, a .01 increase from the previous year. As was the case in 2011, women were expected to live longer than men by 4.8 years. Part of the reason why life expectancy has increased is because of the decreasing infant mortality rate, or the rate of infant deaths to live births per year.
3. More on USA
 In Canada
1. In Canada, average life expectancy for males born in 2012 is 80 and for females 84, the agency said in Thursday’s report, World Health Statistics 2014. In comparison, males born in Canada in 1990 could expect to live to 74 and females to 81 on average. For both sexes in Canada, life expectancy increased on average from 77 in 1990 to 82 in 2012.
2. More on Canada
 In the UK
 In France
 In Iran
1. While the average life expectancy in the world is 67 years, Iran's rate is six percent above the world average at 72 years, says a high-ranking health official in Iran. In a workshop on life expectancy in faculty of Medicine in Shiraz University, Dr Kamran Baqeri Lankarani, the head of the Center of Research for Health Polices in the Iranian Fars Province, said, "Life expectancy in some advanced countries is more than 82 years, and Iran can cover these 10 years of difference with certain precautions." He mentioned that life expectancy is one of the three main factors considered for human development as it is linked to health system and health in the society.
"The other two factors are literacy and average income. Iran is ranked seventh among the middle-ranking countries in the world, for which we should reach the level for advanced countries at the end of the five-year plan," he added. Lankarani said the provinces of Tehran and Gilan have the highest life expectancy in Iran while the lowest belongs to Sistan and Baluchestan (Reported on Jul 15, 2010).  
2. In 2012 the life expectancy in Iran increased to 73.76 years. That year, the life expectancy for women was 75.75 years and for men 71.87 years. Iran’s position improvened in 2012.
1. In comparing the life expectancy figures of American males and females, it must be noted that the relative higher figure for the females may be due to the fact that the American females usually have a careful healthier life than the males. Besides, American females generally reacts quickly to their health problems and go to visit a physision.
2. The relative higher figures in Canada as compared to the USA, are most likely related to the differences of health care services in these two countries. Most Canadians have a Medicare, an unofficial name for Canada's publicly funded universal health insurance system.
3. In Iran, the relative higher figure in Tehran may be due to more accessible health services as compared to the other cities. However, Tehran suffers a very polluted air. Gilan province, on the other hand, enjoys a fresh air and may have much cleaner and healthier environment than other provinces.
Manouchehr Saadat Noury, PhD
MSN Selected Articles

یکشنبه ۲۰ مهر ۱۳۹۳ ه‍.ش.

ایرانیان درپهنه ی سرزمین نیاکان آریایی : ٢٨ - در سرزمین های قزاقستان و ترکمنستان

الف: در سرزمین قزاقستان
١ - قزاقستان: کشوری است در آسیای میانه و از شمال با روسیه، از شرق با چین، در جنوب شرقی با قرقیزستان، در جنوب با ازبکستان و در جنوب غربی با ترکمنستان همسایه است. جمعیت قزاقستان ۱۶ میلیون و ۶۰۰ هزار نفر است و تراکم جمعیتی کمی دارد. ... آستانه، پایتخت کنونی قزاقستان شهری است بسیار سرد و بادخیز که دمای هوا در زمستان در آن به ۴۰ درجه زیر صفر می‌رسد... ساکنان اصلی منطقه امروزی قزاقستان از اقوام ایرانی‌ تبار سکیت بودند... قزاقستان در تاریخ ۱۶ دسامبر ۱۹۹۱ آخرین جمهوری شوروی بود که اعلام استقلال کرد.
٢ - قزاق ها: در قرن سیزدهم میلادی زیر فرمان چنگیزخان درآمدند و تحت حکومت جوجی فرزند جوان وی قرار گرفتند. سپس یکی از بخشهای اردو ی طلائی شدند و جزء امپراطوری غربی مغول که به وسیله ٔ باتو پایه گذاری شد به شمار رفتند. اردو ی طلائی پس از سه قرن سیادت در شرق و غرب آسیا افول کرد و در اوایل قرن شانزدهم این امپراطوری به خانان چندی تقسیم شد. ولی قزاق ها در استپ های ترکستان به سر بردند و در آن هنگام به سه قسمت می شدند: اردوی کوچک ، اردوی متوسط و اردوی بزرگ  پس از قیام اکتبر در روسیه قزاق ها به صورت یکی از حکومت های خودمختار قزاقستان و در اوت ١٩٢۵ جزو حکومت سوسیالیستی روسیه درآمدند.
٣ - شهر آلماتی ( آلماتا) پرجمعیت‌ترین شهر قزاقستان:  بعنوان مرکز اصلی تجاری در جنوب شرقی این کشور و در امتداد رشته کوههای مرتفع تیان شان و نزدیکی مرزهای قرقیزستان قرار گرفته است.  این شهر از سال ١٩٢٧ تا سال ١٩٩٧ به عنوان پایتخت "قزاقستان" به شمار می‌رفت تا آنکه در این سال پایتخت به شهر "آستانا" انتقال یافت. نام شهر آلماتی  در زبان قزاقی برگرفته از کلمه  آلما به معنی سیب و آلماتی به مفهوم شهر پر از سیب است. همچنین در نسخ قدیمی بجا مانده از مجارستان نام این شهر را آلما اتا به معنی پدر سیب می‌دانند که به نظر مفهوم خاصی را نمی‌رساند امروزه سیب به عنوان نماد این شهر شناخته می‌شود. از سوی دیگر برخی از اندیشمندان و تاریخ‌شناسان ایرانی معتقدند نام این شهر تغییر یافته آلوه آتا که در ریشه سکایی – ایرانی آن کوه عقاب نامیده می‌شده گرفته شده است.
٤ - اقوام ایرانی‌ تبار سکیت: سکاها در زبان آشوری اشکوز نامیده می‌شدند و پارسیان و هندی‌ها آنان را سَکا می‌ نامیدند. آن چنان که در کتیبه‌های هخامنشی نگاشته شده؛ سَکَ یا سَکا نامی است که در زبان پارسی باستان برای سکاهایی که از طرف آسیای میانه با ایرانیان سروکار داشتند، به کار رفته ‌است. سکاها در نوشته ‌های هرودوت موسوم به سکیث هستند. در فرهنگ شاهنامه، زیر واژهٔ سگسار آمده‌است: «از مرز و بوم‌هایی که داهیان در آن جای گرفتند» و راجع به داهیان زیر کلمهٔ سکزی می‌خوانیم: «... داه گروهی بودند از آرین که در دشت خوارزم جای گرفتند و پس از آن در کنار جنوبی دریای خزر جایگیر شدند. از آنان مردم بستوه آمدند. پادشاه ایران گروه داه را پراکنده ساخت. یک دسته از آنان را به زابلستان کوچانید و آنان را سکزی خواندند... و دشت خوارزم داهستان نامیده شد که مخفف آن دهستان است و اکنون به دهستان معروف است...».
۵ - فارابی: ابونصر محمد بن محمد طرخانی ملقب به فارابی، حدود سال ۲۵۷ هجری قمری (۸۷۰میلادی) در دهکدهٔ «وسیج» از ناحیهٔ پاراب (فاراب) در فرارود (شهر اُترار کنونی در جنوب قزاقستان) یا پاریاب (فاریاب) خراسان در افغانستان کنونی به دنیا آمد. فارابی، از بزرگترین فیلسوفان ایرانی سده سوم و چهارم هجری است. اهمیت او بیشتر به علت شرح‌هایی است که بر آثار ارسطو نگاشته و به سبب همین مشروحات او را معلم ثانی خوانده‌اند و در مقام بعد از ارسطو قرار داده‌اند. پدر و مادر فارابی ایرانی‌تبار بودند. خود او نیز ایرانی‌تبار بود.
برای آگاهی بیشتر پیرامون "فارابی" و شرح زندگی او، علاقه مندان می توانند به نوشتار"فارابی: نخستین دانشمند ایرانی در رشته ی علم و هنر موسیقی" (به زبان انگلیسی) اثر همین نگارنده مراجعه نمایند.
٦ - - برگزاری هفته ی زبان فارسی در دانشگاه فارابی آلماتی در قزاقستان: اساتید و دانشجویان زبان فاراسی با همکاری رایزنی فرهنگی ایران از تاریخ ١١ تا ١٦ فروردین ١٣٩٢ هفته ی بزرگداشت زبان فارسی را در اتاق ایران و مرکز ایرانشناسی دانشگاه فارابی آلماتی برگزار کردند. در طول این هفته، نمایش نقاشی با موضوعات مختلف اخلاقی و اجتماعی و قرائت شعر و دکلمه و داستان و نمایش کلیپ های ادبی بر گرفته از زبان فارسی و فرهنگ و هنر ایرانی ازجمله برنامه هایی بود که دانشجویان اجرا کردند.
برخی فیلم ها و گزارش ها پیرامون قزاقستان
چهره ی واقعی قزاقستان
پروژه ی اکسپو (نمایشگاه جهانی) در سال ٢٠١٧ در قزاقستان
اسب های بزکشی در قزاقستان
نگاهی به هفته ی مد در قزاقستان
رقص شاد دختران و پسران در شهر آلماتی
نوروز در دانشگاه فارابی آلماتی
جشن سدره پوشی (آیین زرتشتی شدن) در شهر آلماتی قزاقستان
آیین زرتشتی در قزاقستان و آسياي مركزي

ب - در سرزمین ترکمنستان

١ - ترکمنستان: کشوری است در آسیای میانه و از جنوب با افغانستان و ایران، از شمال با ازبکستان و قزاقستان و از باختر با دریای خزر همسایه و از طریق این دریا با کشورهای جمهوری آذربایجان و روسیه نیز همسایه‌ است... بیشتر مردم این کشور از قوم ترکمن هستند و به زبان ترکمنی صحبت می‌کنند. ۸۰٪ درصد مساحت ترکمنستان را صحرای قره‌قوم تشکیل می‌دهد که دارای آب و هوای خشک است. ولی ناحیه ی رشته کوه کپه داغ در جنوب کشور و نزدیکی مرز ایران آب و هوای مناسبی دارد و "عشق آباد" یا "اشک آباد" پایتخت ترکمنستان، "مرو" و سایر شهرهای مهم در این ناحیه هستند. ترکمنستان دارای منابع بزرگ گاز است که آن را به کشورهای مختلف از جمله ایران صادر می‌کند. رشد اقتصادی این کشور در سال ۲۰۰۷ براساس آمار صندوق بین‌المللی پول حدود ۱۱٫۵٪ بوده‌است که آن را یازدهمین کشور دارای رشد اقتصادی سریع می ‌سازد.
ترکمنستان در ادوار مختلف منطقه استراتژیک و مهمی برای حکومت‌های منطقه بوده ‌است. این کشور در زمان هخامنشیان از ساتراپ‌های خوارزم، پارت و مارگیان ا(مرو) تشکیل شده ‌است. در قرن چهارم قبل از میلاد اسکندر مقدونی آسیای مرکزی را فتح نمود و جاده ی ابریشم را بنیان نهاد و به این منطقه رونق اقتصادی و فرهنگی بخشید و اهمیت این منطقه را دوچندان نمود. هشتاد سال بعد در شهر "نِسا" پادشاهی اشکانیان پایه‌گذاری شد و پس از اشکانیان و با روی کار آمدن ساسانیان "نسا" اهمیت خود را از دست نداده و از شهر‌ها ی مهم آن دوران بود. قرن هفتم میلادی این منطقه جزو ممالک اسلامی گردید و با نقل مکان مامون به شهر "مرو" این شهر به عنوان پایتخت خراسان بزرگ شناخته شد. در اواسط قرن یازدهم میلادی سلسله سلجوقیان امپراطوری خود را در ترکمنستان کنونی تشکیل و بزودی از شرق تا چین و  از غرب تا دریای مدیترانه گسترش داد و این قدرت تا قرن دوازدهم ادامه داشت و با حمله چنگیز مغول امپراطوری سلجوقیان سرنگون گردید.
٢ - كشور تركمنستان: درجنوب غربي آسياي مركزي ‌است و از شمال و شرق با ازبكستان، از غرب به درياي خزر و از جنوب به ايران (استان هاي مازندران و خراسان)، از جنوب شرقی به افغانستان و از شمال غربی به قزاقستان منتهي مي شود. وجود مرز آبي با درياي خزر اهميت اين كشور را دو چندان كرده است. اقتصاد اين كشور پس از يك دهه ركود درسال ١٩٩٩مجدداً به رونق گذشته بازگشت، بطوريكه رشد واقعي توليد ناخالص اين كشور در اين سال ١٢ درصد بود، اين بهبود در رشد را عمدتاً ناشي از فروش گاز طبيعي اين كشور به ايران و روسيه مي‌دانند. سواي از نفت و گاز, توليد و صادرات پنبه نيز بخش مهمي از درآمدهاي اين كشور را تشكيل مي‌دهد اما نبايد فراموش كرد كه درحال حاضر صادرات پنبه اين كشور تنها به ميزان  نيمي از صادرات پنبه اين كشور در زمان شوروي سابق مي باشد. از ديگر اقلام مهم صادراتي اين كشور ميتوان به قالي و برق اشاره كرد. دولت تركمنستان در دوره پس از استقلال با آگاهي از شرايط موجود اقتصادي در جهت قطع رشته‌ هاي وابستگي به مسكو و ديگر جماهير و پايه‌ريزي يك اقتصاد ملي گام برداشت. واقع شدن در مسير جاده ی ابريشم (كه آسياي دور را به اروپا وصل مي كند)، مجاورت با درياي خزر، راه آبي كشورهاي منطقه به درياي سياه و امكان ارتباط با آب هاي گرم خليج فارس و اقيانوس هند از طريق ايران، مسئولين اين كشور را به بهره‌گيري و ايجاد زيرساخت هاي لازم جهت استفاده هر چه بيشتر از اين امكانات واداشته است.
٣ - شهر مرو مرکز استان مرو در ترکمنستان شهر باستانی آریایی ها: مَرو مرکز استان مرو در ترکمنستان است و در انتهای جنوبی بیابان قره قوم و به فاصلهٔ نود مایلی شمال شرقی سرخس واقع است و از رود مرغاب (مرورود) مشروب می‌شود. به ساکنان مرو در فارسی مَروَزی گفته می‌شود به معنی «زیَنده در مرو». مردم نواحی شرقی خراسان مرو را به نام مور (بر وزن دور به‌معنی محیط و پیرامون) و باشندگان آن را موری (بر وزن دوری به‌معنی بشقاب) می‌گویند... پیشینه ی مرو به پیش از میلاد مسیح می‌رسد. مرو از شهرهای باستانی آریاییان و از مراکز فرهنگی ایران بوده‌است. داریوش اول در سنگ‌نبشته ی بیستون مرو را مَرگَوش نامیده و با باختر اسم برده است. اما جغرافیانویسان قدیم آن را مَرْگیانا نامیده و جداگانه ذکر کرده‌اند. مرگیان یا مرو از سرزمین‌های تابع اشکانیان بشمار می‌آمد.
مرو در دورهٔ ساسانیان آباد بوده‌است. یزدگرد سوم آخرین پادشاه ساسانی پس از شکست جنگ نهاوند (۲۱ هجری/۶۴۲ میلادی) به ری، اصفهان، کرمان، بلخ و سپس مرو رفت و از شاه چین و خاقان ترک کمک خواست اما چون از سوءنیت ماهوی سوری مرزبان مرو نسبت به خود آگاه شد به آسیابانی به نام خسرو پناه برد و او یزدگرد را به طمع لباس فاخرش کشت (۳۱ ه‍ . ق/۶۵۱ میلادی). از آن پس سرزمین های شرقی ایران یکی پس از دیگری و از جمله مرو بتصرف مسلمانان درآمد و سلسله‌ های ایرانی یکی پس از دیگری بر این ناحیه حکومت کردند... در دورهٔ صفویه و افشاریه و قاجاریه گهگاه سرکشان نواحی مخصوصاً ازبکان و خان های خیوه، مرو را مورد تاخت و تاز قرار ‌دادند. در دورهٔ قاجاریه  تعرض ترکمانان و حکام اطراف امری عادی شده بود بدین مناسبت ناصرالدین شاه قاجار در اواخر سال ۱۲۷۶ ه‍ .ق، حمزه میرزا حشمت‌ الدوله را به همراهی قوام‌ الدوله آشتیانی با چهل هزار سپاهی روانهٔ حدود مرو کرد. اما این لشکر بسبب بی‌احتیاطی و اختلافی که بین حشمت ‌الدوله و قوام‌ الدوله بود از ترکمانان شکست خورد و روس ها که به حدود شمال دریاچهٔ آرال و مشرق دریای خزر رسیده و به تصرف ترکستان شرقی و غربی و دره‌های سیحون و جیحون شروع کرده بودند به نواحی تحت تابعیت ایران نیز دست انداختند، از جمله خیوه را در ۱۲۷۰ و تاشکند و سمرقند و بخارا را در ۱۲۸۱ و ۱۲۸۵ اشغال کردند و با استیلای بر این نواحی به درهٔ آرال اترک و ترکمن صحرا نزدیک شدند و در ۱۲۹۸ ه‍ .ق در گوگ‌ تپه ترکمانان تکه را بکلی از پای درآوردند و سرانجام در محرم ۱۲۹۹ ه‍ .ق. خط مرزی کنونی بین دولت ایران و روسیه به موجب معاهده‌ای تغیین و مشخص شد.
برخی فیلم ها و گزارش ها پیرامون ترکمنستان
مدرسه ايرانيان در عشق آباد ترکمنستان
نمونه ای از برنامه ی رقص و موسیقی در ترکمنستان
رقص های محلی در ترکمنستان
فیلم مستند پیرامون ترکمنستان
یادداشت پایانی
١ - اگر چه مشهور ترین دانشگاه در شهر آلماتی قزاقستان به احترام فیلسوف نامدار ایران به نام "فارابی" خوانده شده و این امر شایان تحسین است اما اضافات "ال" و "قزاق" به "فارابی" بسیار اسف انگیز است و جای اعتراض دارد.
٢ - با آرزوی بهترین ها برای همه ی مردمان قزاقستان و ترکمنستان
 دکتر منوچهر سعادت نوری
منابع و مآخذ
قزاقستان: تارنمای دانشنامهٔ آزاد ویکی‌پدیا
قزاق ها: تارنمای دانشنامه ی ایرانیکا - تارنمای لغت نامه دهخدا
شهر آلماتی ( آلماتا) پرجمعیت‌ترین شهر قزاقستان: تارنمای پایگاه اطلاع رسانی قزاقستان - تارنمای باشگاه خبرنگاران
اقوام ایرانی‌ تبار سکیت: تارنمای دانشنامهٔ آزاد ویکی‌پدیا
فارابی: تارنمای دانشنامهٔ آزاد ویکی‌پدیا - تارنمای گزیده ای از نوشتارها
برگزاری هفته ی زبان فارسی در دانشگاه فارابی آلماتی در قزاقستان: بسیاری تارنماها
برخی فیلم ها و گزارش ها پیرامون قزاقستان: تارنمای یوتیوب
ترکمنستان: تارنمای دانشنامهٔ آزاد ویکی‌پدیا
كشور تركمنستان - نوشتاری از وحيد احمدي: تارنمای مطالعات درياي خزر
شهر مرو مرکز استان مرو در ترکمنستان شهر باستانی آریایی ها: تارنمای دانشنامهٔ آزاد ویکی‌پدیا
برخی فیلم ها و گزارش ها پیرامون ترکمنستان: تارنمای خبرگزاری فارس - تارنمای یوتیوب
Aryans in Kazakhstan & Turkmenistan
Abstract: Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the Neolithic Age: the region's climate and terrain are best suited for nomads practicing pastoralism. Archaeologists believe that humans first domesticated the horse in the region's vast steppes. Central Asia was originally inhabited by Indo-Iranians. The best known of those groups was the nomadic Scythians.. Merv (in Turkmenistan), formerly Achaemenid Satrapy of Margiana; was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road. It is claimed that Merv was briefly the largest city in the world in the 12th century....Some Reports and Vidoes about Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Naming an important university after Farabi in Kazakhstan, is believed to be consistent with a respect to the famous Iranian scientist and philosopher. But those additional prefixes such as al- and kazakh (as used by the official Website of Farabi University in Kazakhstan) are awfully incorrect and need to be strongly protested: Manouchehr Saadat Noury, PhD

گزیده ای از نوشتارها
بخش های پیشین ایرانیان درپهنه ی سرزمین نیاکان آریایی

First Iranian Expert in the Art and Science of Music: Farabi

INTRODUCTION: Among many ancient societies that shaped the history of human civilization, Iran is considered to be one of the few, which preserved steadily and patiently its distinct identity through centuries. And that is mirrored in its literary and cultural heritage, in its superb and lovely tradition of decorative arts and handicrafts, in its outstanding legacy in architecture, and particularly in its fabulous and stylish musical culture. The Persian Mythical King, Jamshid, has been credited with the invention of music. The writings of Greek Historians like Herodotus and Xenophon suggest that music played an important role in court life and religious ceremonies during Achamenid era (550-331 BC). During Sassanid Dynasty (226-642 AD), high-ranking status was conferred to court poet and musicians such as Baarbod, Nakissa, and Raamtin. Although the Arab invasion of 625 AD regrettably suppressed the musical development in Iran, Abbasid Caliphs (750-1258 AD), inspired by Iranians, reestablished music at the courts, and Iranian musicians were scattered throughout the Muslim World. Mohammad Farkhan Farabi (MFF), Pur Sina, and Safey-e-Din Ormavi, are but a few among the group of outstanding Iranian musical scholars in ancient Iran. In this article the life story of MFF, the First Iranian Expert in the Art and Science of Music and his contributions to music and many other fields of knowledge are studied and discussed.
HIS LIFE: Mohammad Farkhan Farabi (also named as Abu Nasr Farabi in Arabic Literature) was born on 1 October 870, when Nasr I (864–892) of Samanid Dynasty was in power in Khorasaan and Bukhara. At the same time, Ya'ghub Laith (869–879), the founder of Saffarid Dynasty was also in power in Sistaan. In present-day Iran, MFF's birthday has been marked as the National Music Day on Iranian Calendar. The older Persian form Paryab, for Faryab, is given in the historical account of Hodudol-Aalam (a geography book written by an unknown author) for MFF's birthplace, and as noted by historian Ibn-e-Nadim, MFF's origin lies in Faryab in Khorasaan. Some historians, most unlikely, claim that Farabi was born in the small village of Wasij near Farab in what is today Turkmenistan. MFF is known as Phrarabius in West and as Alfarabi in Arab world (where the Arabs intentionally add the prefixes as al, abu, ibn, and so on to mislead the readers). His name also originated the Portuguese word of [alfarrbio] meaning an old and a thick book.
MFF was the son of an Iranian army commander who belonged to a noble family. He completed his earlier education at Faryab of Khorasaan and in Bokhara, and in 901 he went to Baghdad to pursue his higher education. According to some researchers, MFF studied under a Christian physician, and acquired mastery over several foreign languages (Greek, Turkish, Arabic, and Assyrian), and many fields of knowledge. He was also a student of Bashir Matta Yuness, the great translator and interpreter of Greek Philosophy. MFF lived and remained in Baghdad for 40 years until 941. That was the time that members of Buyyid Family (in Persian: Khandaan-e-Booyeh or Aal-e-Booyeh) were spreading their powers and commands around Iran and Abbasid Caliphs were becoming weak and weaker. It should be noted that in 945, Iranian family of Buyyid overthrew the Caliph and they ruled Baghdad and most of Iraq and Syria until 1055.
During his early years, MFF worked as a Judge (in Persian: Daavar or Ghaazi), but later on he took up teaching as his profession. As a physician, MFF also practiced Medicine treating his patients free of any charge. In the course of his career, he had suffered great hardships and at one time he was also the caretaker of a garden. MFF traveled to many distant lands and stayed for some times in Damascus (Syria) and in Cairo (Egypt), but repeatedly came back to Baghdad. Once, on a visit to Mecca, not so much for religious as for philosophical purposes, MFF returned through Syria, and he stopped at the court of the King Saif-o-Dowleh Hamedani (SDH), a member of Buyyid family, who was renowned and recognized as the patron of learning at the time. [It is also reported that MFF went to India to visit the ruler SDH there, which is most unlikely]. In the court of SDH in Syria, MFF presented himself in his traveling outfit and dress, in the presence of that King and his courtiers; and, without invitation, coolly sat himself down upon the sofa, beside SDH's son, the Prince. The courtiers and wise men were indignant and resentful; and the SDH, who did not know the intruder, was at first inclined to follow their examples. SDH turned to one of his officers, and ordered him to drive out the presumptuous stranger from the room; but MFF, without moving, dared them to lay hands upon him; and, turned himself calmly to the Prince, remarked that the Prince did not know who was his guest, or he would treat him with honor, not with violence. SDH, instead of being still further incensed, admired MFF's coolness; and requested him to sit still closer to him on the sofa, entered into a long conversation with him upon science and divine philosophy. All the court was charmed with MFF. Questions for discussion were propounded, on all of which MFF showed superior knowledge. He convinced every one that ventured to dispute with him; and spoke so eloquently upon Philosophy, Medicine, Chemistry and many other fields. One of the learned men among the audience, inquired whether a man who knew so many sciences was acquainted with music also? MFF made no reply, but merely requested that a lute (in Persian: Barbat) should be brought him. The lute was brought; and he played such tender melodies, that all the court was melted into tears. He then changed his theme, and played airs so energetic and sprightly, that he set the serious and important dignitaries, SDH and others, started dancing as fast as their legs could carry them. MFF then sobered them again by a mournful strain, and made them sob and sigh as if broken-hearted. SDH, highly delighted with his powers, entreated him to stay, offering him every inducement that wealth, power, and dignity could supply; but MFF resolutely refused all the offers, and left SDH after a while.
HIS CONTRIBUTIONS: MFF contributed considerably to science, philosophy, logic, sociology, medicine, mathematics and music. He may rightly be acclaimed as one of the all time's greatest philosophers in the history of Iran and also in the Muslim World. A well-known story tells how Pur Sina who came after MFF, sought in vain to understand Aristotle's Metaphysics, and it was only through a book by MFF on the intentions of the Metaphysics that helped Pur Sina to understand it finally. MFF's philosophical legacy is large, and he has come to be known as the Second Teacher or Second Master (in Persian: Dovomeen Amoozegaar or Moullem-e-Saani), with Aristotle being the First. In the arena of metaphysics, MFF has been designated as the Father of Neoplatonism in Muslim World, and while he was also saturated with Aristotle’s views and certainly deploys the vocabulary of Aristotle, it is this Neoplatonic dimension, which dominates much of his corpus. This is apparent in his most famous book on the Opinions & Ideas expressed by the Citizens of a Perfect City of the Citizens of a Perfect City or Aaray-e-Ahleh Madineh-e-Faazeleh (AMF), which is far from being a copy or a clone of Plato's Republic, and it is imbued with the Neoplatonic concept of God. AMF is also a significant early contribution to sociology and political science. His influence was wide and extended not only to major philosophers of his time such as Pur Sina, and to lesser mortals such as Yahya Adi, Sijistani, Amiri and Tawhidi, but also to major thinkers of Christian Medieval Europe including Thomas Aquinas.
MFF was also a great expert in the art and science of music. He invented several musical instruments. The invention of Quanun (in Persian and Arabic: Ghaanoon), an Iranian musical instrument, has been attributed to him. MFF also contributed to the knowledge of what we now know as [the musical notes]. It is well documented that MFF was an accomplished composer of music and many songs composed by him are still sung by Dervishes to this day. [The word Dervish, in Persian: Darvish, refers, especially in European Languages, to members of a group of Sufi Muslims known for their extreme poverty and austerity]. He was very well familiar to play lute, and as noted earlier he could play his instrument so well that people start to laugh or weep at will, depending on the piece. He also wrote a book on music, entitled as the Great Book of Music or GBM (in Persian: Ketab-e-Arzeshmand-e-Moosighi, or Ketab-e-Moosighi-e-Kabir). In 1978, Iranian physicist and scholar, Dr Mehdi Barkeshli, published a book entitled as Farabi's Scientific Ideas About Music (in Persian: Andisheh-haay-e-Elmy-e-Farabi Darbaareh Moosighi), in which a general glance was given over GBM, and the relationship of MFF's musical theory with the contemporary Iranian Music was studied and discussed. Although many books authored by MFF have been lost, 107 are known. Out of those 107 books, 43 are on logic, 11 on metaphysics, 8 on ethics, 7 on political science, 27 on music, medicine and sociology, and 11 are as commentaries. Many of his famous books in science and music are still taught at some of the institutions in many countries around the world.
HIS END:  At 80, he died as a bachelor in Damascus in 950. (Some documents also indicate that MFF passed away in 954). The circumstances of his death are not clear; some accounts portray him dying naturally in Damascus while at least one holds that he was mugged and killed on the road from Damascus to Ascalon. Ascalon is also called Ashkelon (in Persian: Essghalaan), and it is an ancient seaport on the coast of Mediterranean Sea just north of Gaza.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:  As noted, MFF was not only an expert in the art and science of music, but he was also a philosopher, a physician, a chemist, and an expert in social and political sciences. MFF had a great desire to understand the Universe and Humankind. He liked to understand the position of the Man within the Universe, so as to ascertain a comprehensive and intellectual picture of the world and of society as a whole. When he undertook his meticulous study of ancient philosophy, particularly of Plato and Aristotle, he absorbed the components of Platonic and Neo-Platonic philosophy, which he then integrated into his knowledge of the Koran. However, he combined these two in a new and unique way: He was the first Iranian philosopher to separate philosophy and theology, influencing the scholars of many different religions who followed him. He concluded that human reason, the tool of the philosopher, was superior to revelation, the tool of religion, resulting in the advantage of philosophy over religion. He claimed that philosophy was based on intellectual perception, while religion was based on imagination. He thus attributed impressive characteristics to the philosopher, and advocated the philosopher as the ideal head of state. In his writings, MFF noted that the best ruler for a Muslim state would be an educated King, chosen for his intelligence, and the one who has studied in science, philosophy, and some other fields of knowledge. MFF blamed political upheavals in the Islamic world of his time on the fact that the state was not run by philosophers, whose superior powers of reason and intellect would result in ideal leadership.
MFF was a physician and his psychological view of humanity was that an isolated individual cannot achieve perfection by himself, but requires the aid of many other individuals. Therefore, to achieve any sort of perfection, every person needed to interact and associate with others. In terms of political thought, MFF described the ideal state as the one with a duty to provide for the physical well being of the citizens, as well as helping people towards religious salvation.
Epilogues (Posted August 2012)
1. Safi-o-Din Ormavi (aka Safi al-Din al-Urmawi or Safi al-Din Abd al-Mu'min ibn Yusuf ibn al-Fakhir al-Urmawi) was born c. 1216 AD in Urmia, died in Baghdad in 1294 AD. He was a renowned musician and writer on the theory of music. Ormavi is perhaps best known for developing in the thirteenth century the widely used seventeen-tone scale later expanded to the Arabic scale of twenty-four quarter tones. He has written two important books about theory of Persian art music of his time, which they are Al-advar and Al-sharafiyyeh (View here: 1 & 2).
2. View more info about Lute (in Persian: Baebat, aka Oode) here: 1 & 2
3. The Farabi's book on the Opinions & Ideas expressed by the Citizens of a Perfect City or Aaray-e-Ahleh Madineh-e-Faazeleh was originally written in Arabic. The Iranian scolar Seyyed Jaafar Sajjadi translated the above famous book of Farabi from Arabic into Persian (View here).
4. View more info about the Iranian musical instrument of Quanun (in Persian and Arabic: Ghaanoon) here 5. According to Farabi, the best ruler for the Muslim state would be a "philosopher-king", which is actually a concept described in Plato's Republic (View here).
6. A Persian Text on his biography and about the Political Phlosophy of Farabi may be viewed online here
7. A Persian Text on the Philosophies of Plato and Farabi, a comparative study, may be viewed online here
Manouchehr Saadat Noury, PhD
Black, D. (2005):  Psychology: Soul and Intellect in Adamson, P and Taylor, R, ed., the Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy, Cambridge University Press.
Butterworth, C. (2005): Ethical and Political Philosophy in Adamson, P and Taylor, R., ed., the Cambridge Companion to Arabic Philosophy, Cambridge University Press.
Corbin, H., Nasr, H. and U. Yahya (1993): History of Islamic Philosophy, ed., Keagan Paul International.
Fakhry, M. (2002): Al-Farabi, Founder of Islamic Neoplatonism: His Life, Works, and Influence, Oxford: Oneworld Publications.
Saadat Noury, M. (2005): Online Articles on the First Iranians.
Saadat Noury, M. (2005): Various Articles on the Persian Culture and the History of Iran.
Various Sources (2005): Notes and News about Iranian Scientist Farabi.
Wikipedia Encyclopedia (2005): Online Articles on Farabi (in Persian and in English).

جمعه ۱۸ مهر ۱۳۹۳ ه‍.ش.

=== A Notable Canadian Pharmacist: Pamela Orfali ===

General Information: Pharmacists, also known as chemists or druggists, are healthcare professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use. A pharmacist is a member of the health care team directly involved in patient care. Pharmacists undergo university-level education to understand biochemical mechanisms of action of drugs, drug uses, and therapeutic roles, side effects, potential drug interactions, and monitoring parameters. This is mated to anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology. Pharmacists interpret and communicate this specialized knowledge to patients, physicians, and other health care providers. Among other licensing requirements, different countries require pharmacists to hold either a Bachelor of Pharmacy or Doctor of Pharmacy degree. The most common pharmacist positions are that of a community pharmacist (also referred to as a retail pharmacist, first-line pharmacist or dispensing chemist), or a hospital pharmacist, where they instruct and counsel on the proper use and adverse effects of medically prescribed drugs and medicines. In most countries, the profession is subject to professional regulation. Depending on the legal scope of practice, pharmacists may contribute to prescribing (also referred to as "pharmacist prescriber") and administering certain medications (e.g., immunizations) in some jurisdictions. Pharmacists may also practice in a variety of other settings, including industry, wholesaling, research, academia, military, and government.
The Number of Pharmacists: In the last few years, the number of pharmacists has grown sharply. Employment growth in this occupation depends primarily on the degree of prescription drug use, developments in the field of practice of pharmacists and the number of pharmacy graduates. The sharp increase should continue over the next few years.
Pharmacy in Canada: Pharmacy is changing. Pharmacists are taking on expanded roles and are increasingly being recognized as the medication management experts of the health care team. Given the increasing numbers of medications, our aging population and the growing cost of pharmaceuticals, pharmacists are key to ensuring safe, cost-effective drug therapy for Canadians.
Pharmacists in Canada: The Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) is the national professional organization for pharmacists in Canada. Specific requirements for practice vary across provinces, but generally include a Bachelor's of Science in Pharmacy from a recognized university, successful completion of a national board examination through the Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada, and practical experience through an apprenticeship/internship program. The vast majority (80%) of Canada's licensed pharmacists work in community pharmacies, another 15 percent in hospital or institutional pharmacies, and the remainder work in situations that may not legally require licensed pharmacists such as associations, pharmaceutical companies, and consulting firms.
A Notable Canadian Pharmacist, Pamela Orfali: One of the notable Canadian pharmacists is Pamela Orfali who lives and works in Montreal. Here are some info about her:
Her Education: 1. John Molson School of Business: Graduate degree, Business Administration, Management and Operation (2013–2014). 2. Université de Montréal/ University of Montreal: Bachelor's degree, Pharmacy (2006–2010). 3. Collège Stanislas: Baccalauréat Français, Sciences.
Her Experiences: 1. Pharmacist Owner/ Pharmaprix at Monkland Avenue, Montreal (January 2014– Present). 2. Pharmacist/ Pharmaprix (2010–January 2014). 3. Pharmacy Student/ Lab Technician: Pharmaprix (2006–August 2010). 4. Pharmacy Intern: CHUM Notre-Dame (May 2009 – August 2009). 5. Research Assistant: CHUM - Universite de Montreal (June 2005–August 2006).
Some Meanings of Pamela
1. Pamela is Greek and means Sweet as Honey. The name "Pam" is rarely used by a true Pamela. Pamela is a Lady in all situations and represents beauty within. Loving, very forgiving to a fault, sweet, kind, christian/godly qualities, southern values, gift giver, flashy romantic dresser, encouraging, brightens a room, friendly, fun, loving the glitz and glamor of life. So nice some people think she is a fake but she is "the real thing".
2. Pamela: The most beautiful girl in the entire world. She has the most beautiful smile ever. It's bright and sparkling and it brightens everyone's day. She is just perfect.
3. Pamela: Truest of friends, good listener. Witty and charming. Beautiful eyes and soul. Passionate and caring, and can be fiercely stubborn and strong willed. Does not like to be told no. A perfectionist who often causes turmoil for herself. The girl next door, but has an alluring quality about her. Pamela is a complete package that comes with a wide variety of attributes. Pamelas are all a little different, each one is a one of a kind, unique in her own way.
1. According to many patients who visited Pamela Orfali, she is a very helpful, courteous and  knowledgeable person and a very experienced pharmacist. Lots of people also admit that Pamela Orfali is the best pharmacist they have ever visited.
2. With best wishes for Pamela Orfali, and for all who work in the field of health care and social services.
Manouchehr Saadat Noury, PhD

پنجشنبه ۱۷ مهر ۱۳۹۳ ه‍.ش.

First Iranian who set up the First Tea Plantations in Iran

INTRODUCTION: Although the tradition of drinking imported tea (mostly from India and China) among some groups of people in Iran trace back to the end of 15th century, the cultivation of this plant in order to market a native product was actually started around one century ago. It was only at the beginning of the 20th century that the first crop of Iranian tea was produced and sold on the local market. The reliable documents indicate that the tea plantations in Iran were firstly set up by Mohammad Mirza Kashefolsaltaneh (MMK) in Lahijan, a region in the northern province of Gilan between 1895 and 1902. At the time, MMK was about 30 years old and he was working as an officer in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (in Persian: Vezaarat-e Omor-e Khaarejeh). In this article, the life story and the works of MMK as the First Iranian who Set Up the First Tea Plantations in Iran will be briefly studied and discussed.
HIS EARLY LIFE: MMK was born to Asadollah Nayebol-Eyaleh (ANE) and Jahan Aara Azizolsaltaneh (JAA) in the first day of Iranian calendar on 21 March 1865. He was born in Torbat-e Heydarieh, a city in the Razavi Khorasan province of Iran. It may be worthy to note that his birthplace Torbat-e Heydarieh is a city which is famous for its Saffron (in Persian: Zafaran), and it is currently among the first rank places in the world for producing Saffron. MMK's mom JAA was the first child of Prince Ghahreman Mirza who was the son of Abass Mirza, the Crown Prince to Fath Ali Shah Qajar (ruled 1797-1834). In 1866, ANE and JAA along with the newborn MMK moved to Tehran, the capital city of Iran, and resided in a house next to the Golesstan Palace.
HIS EDUCATION: In Tehran, while MMK was about 6 to 7 years old his parents hired a mentor to teach him Persian Literature and Arabic Language. MMK then completed his high school education in Darolfonoon which was the best scientific and technical institution of Iran at the time. It was in Darolfonoon where he also learned French Language and the principles of various Sciences and Techniques.
HIS EARLY WORKS: At 16 and upon his graduation from Darolfonoon, MMK joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) where he worked as the Secretary to the Minister of Foreign Affairs Nassorlah Khan Moshiroldoleh. In 1881, MMK was appointed as the Second Secretary (in Persian: Dabir-e Douvom) to the Iranian Embassy in Paris, France. Over there, while working in the Embassy he also started to study Law in the University of Paris (Sorbonne) where he got his BA degree in Administrative Law. In 1886, he was promoted as the First Deputy to the Iranian Ambassador to France. In 1889 after eight years living in Paris, MMK was called to return to Tehran and he was appointed as the Special Secretary to translate French to Persian as Dr Fevrier, the Royal Court Physician, was giving medical advice to Naserddin Shah Qajar (ruled 1848-1896).
In 1894, MMK left the Royal Court and he was then appointed as the Khorasan Deputy Governor (in Persian: Nayebol-Eyaleh or Moaaven-e Ostandaar) working in his birthplace Torbat-e Heydarieh. In 1895, at the age of 30, MMK married to Gohar-e Graan Maayeh. In the same year, Mohsen Khan Moshiroldoleh appointed him as the Consul to the Iranian Consulate General located in Mumbai (formerly Bombay), India. In 1897 when he was back to Iran, he set up the first tea plantations in the country. In 1904, he left Iran for Paris where he worked as the Minister Plenipotentiary (in Persian: Vazir Mokhtar) of Iran to France. In 1906, MMK was called back home where he was appointed as the first Mayor of Tehran. In 1908, he resigned as the mayor of Tehran and resumed his works at MFA.
HIS EFFECTIVE ROLE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF TEA INDUSTRY IN IRAN: As the Consul of Iran to India under British rule, MMK knew the Brits would not allow him to learn about the secrets of tea production, as it was their biggest business in India in those periods of time. So being fluent in French, MMK pretended to be a French laborer and started to work at the tea plantations and factories in India to learn how to produce tea. Ultimately his plan was to take back some samples of Indian tea to Iran to cultivate. He was successful in this endeavor only because of his diplomatic immunity which stopped the Brits from searching his secretly stashed samples. In 1897, he brought those samples together with the vases of various plants like coffee (in Persian: Ghahveh), pepper (in Persian: Felfel), cannabis (in Persian: Shahdaaneh), kenaf or hemp (in Persian: Kanaf), cinnamon (in Persian: Darchin), cardamom (in Persian: Hel), mango (in Persian: Anbeh), quinine (in Persian: Ganeh Ganeh), Camphor (in Persian: Kafoor) , turmeric (in Persian: Zard Choobeh), and ginger (in Persian: Zanjebil) to Iran. He set up the first tea plantations in Lahijan, a region in the province of Gilan. Plantations then developed rapidly in other parts of Gilan, and the places located between the south shore of the Caspian Sea and the Albourz Mountains.
In every tea plantation that MMK established in Gilan, many farmers and laborers could get some training in different aspects of tea cultivation. MMK also made a trip to Russia in 1902 and hired two tea experts to work and to assist in the training programs of the plantations. Around the early years of the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi (1925-1941) who initiated reforms marking the beginning of the modernization of Iran, an authoritative governmental office named as Tea Organization (in Persian: Sazmaan-e Chai) was founded and MMK was asked to direct it. As the Director of the Tea Organization he developed cultivation and production of tea in many parts of Gilan and the south shore of the Caspian Sea. Besides, MMK welcomed a group of Chinese experts as the advisors to the Tea Organization. He also made the arrangements to get the Chinese tea seeds and to purchase some Chinese Agricultural Machineries to be used in the plantations. As the result of much endeavor, the Tea Industry of Iran grew and developed rapidly when MMK was in charge. MMK was probably one of those guys who always whispered: "You got to believe that your effort can make a difference"!
Today, most Iranians know MMK as the Father of the Tea Industry of Iran (in Persian: Pedar-e Sanat-e Chai-e Iran).
HIS END: It is documented that MMK's life was ended due to a car accident in 1928. The accident which is still a mystery occurred on a road between Bushire and Shiraz in southern province of Fars. His tomb is located on a hillock overlooking the tea plantations of Lahijan and it is now a part of the Iran Tea Museum (in Persian: Moozeh-e Chai-e Iran).
Michael Rubin from the Washington Institute for Near East Policy noted that, "On 20 February 2001, hundreds of farmers growing tea in the Caspian Sea region demonstrated in front of the Department of Agriculture headquarters in Lahijan. They were protesting the importation of tea from abroad in deals arranged by relatives of high-level government officials. According to the protestors, more than 1000 Iranian tea plantations have gone bankrupt in recent months". And about six years later on 16 September 2007, Nima Akbarpour referred to the mismanagements observed in the Tea Museum of Iran and noted that many precious papers and documents displayed there have lost their fine qualities and they have been almost destroyed due to the exposure of the strong emissions of light and high level of humidity inside the museum.
Every single bone in the buried corpse of Kashefol Saltaneh within his grave is shivering as he witnesses all those unpleasant events happening in his sight!
Manouchehr Saadat Noury, PhD
Akbarpour, N. (2007): Online Note on the Tea Museum in Lahijan, Osyan Net Website (in Persian).
ITTO Website (2009): Online Note and Image of Kashefol Saltaneh Tomb.
Kasraian, N. and Arshi, Z. (1995): The North of Iran, ed., Sekeh Press, Iran, (in Persian).
Kazemi, S. (1995): Haji Mirza Kashefol Saltaneh, ed., Sayeh Publications, Iran, (in Persian).
Rubin, M. (2001): Online Article on Iran's Burgeoning Discontent.
Saadat Noury, M. (2005): Online Note on Fath Ali Shah Qajar: About 17 Cities in the Collection of the Missing Moments.
Saadat Noury, M. (2007): Various Articles on the History of Iran.
Saadat Noury, M. (2008): Online Articles on Science.
Saadat Noury, M. (2009): Online Articles on First Iranians.
Tea Website (2009): Online Notes on "Tea Producing Countries: From the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea".
Various Sources (2009): Notes and News on Mohammad Mirza Kashefolsaltaneh.
Wikipedia Encyclopedia (2009): Online Note on Kashefolsaltaneh (in Persian).
Originally published online in 2009

===== In the Factual Department of Tea ========

Significant sources indicate that tea as a drink is the most consumed beverage worldwide after water. Drinking a cup of tea can help men and women to maintain health as part of a healthy lifestyle. The antioxidant, hydrating properties, alkaloid thein, alkaloid caffeine, and fluoride found in tea suggest that a person need never feel embarrassed about reaching for the teapot. In this article, the facts about tea as related to the name, the history, the types, the preparations, the nutritional values, along with the quotations in favor of tea, and a few notes in regard to the research findings on the healthy benefits of tea will be studied and reviewed.
The tea plant scientifically is named as Camellia sinensis and the leaves from this plant are the sources of all nonherbal teas. The name used for tea in different languages around the world is either derived from Te or Cha used originally in Chinese. The same English term of Tea is used in Hungarian language and the terms used to name tea in some other languages can be listed as follows: Persian, Pashto, Hindi, Russian, Georgian, Ukrainian: Chai/ Italian: Te or The/ French: The/ Scots: Ti/ Irish: Tae/ Swedish, Armenian, Icelandic, Danish, Norwegian, Spanish, Welsh: Te/ German, Finish: Tee/ Dutch: Thee and Arabic: Shay.
2700 BC: Chinese Emperor Shen Nung discovered tea.
725 BC: Tea became a part of daily life in China.
805 AD: Dengo Daishi introduced tea plantations in Japan.
1191: After centuries of neglect, the cultivation of tea in Japan was revived by the Buddhist Abbot Yesai, who subsequently published the first Japanese tea book.
1500: The first teapots were made at a place near Shanghai, which is currently the largest city in China in terms of population and it is also famous for its clays.
1610: Tea reached Europe for the first time, carried by the Dutch from a trading station in Bantam, Java. They purchased tea from Chinese merchants, who spoke the Amoy dialect and therefore referred to the product as "Tea".
1657: Garway's Coffee House in London held the first public sale of tea, and became the first London Tea House (LTH). In the same year, LTH started to advertise the "Virtues of the leaf tea".
1680: Marguerite de la Sabliere, aka Madame Sabliere, friend and patron of the famous French poet La Fontaine, introduced the custom of drinking tea with milk to French people.
1773: On 16 December 1773, at the Boston Tea Party, American colonists dumped the entire Boston consignment of the John Company's tea into the harbor in protest of the exorbitant tea tax.
1856: The first tea was planted in the Darjeeling District of Northern India. India was under British rule at the time.
1900: The last camel caravan carrying tea departed Peking (the capital city of China) for Russia. During the same year, the last link of the Trans-Siberian railroad was completed.
1902: In Iran, the first tea plantation was set up in Lahijan, a region in Northern Province of Gilan, by Mirza Mohammad Kashefolsaltaneh (MMK). View an article written by this author about MMK and on the History of Tea Industry in Iran.
Manufacturers process the tea leaves in three different ways to produce the three major classes of teas known as green, black, and oolong. In fact, to achieve a variety of taste profiles, manufacturers carefully control whether, and for a certain period of time, tea leaves are exposed to air, a process called fermentation. When fermentation is completely arrested, the tea stays "green" or yellowish brown. When fermentation time is long, the leaves darken and become "black" tea. Somewhere in between these two extremes, "oolong" tea is created. Tea may be prepared as blended, decaffeinated, brewed, or iced. 
1. Tea is a natural source of fluoride and drinking four cups makes a significant contribution to the daily intake of this element.
2. Tea with milk provides 21 per cent of daily calcium requirement in 4 cups.
3. Tea without milk has no calories. Using semi-skimmed milk adds around 13 calories per cup, but a person also benefits from valuable minerals and calcium.
4. Tea with milk contains Vitamin B6, Riboflavin B2 and Thiamin B1.
5. Tea is a source of the minerals Manganese (Mn), and Potassium (K). Mn is essential for bone growth and body development, and K is vital for maintaining body fluid levels.
6. Tea contains some mineral Zinc (Zn) and Folic Acid (a vitamin B).
7. The average cup of tea contains less than half the level of caffeine than coffee. One cup contains only 50 mg per 190 ml cup.
8. Tea is known to be a good source of the flavonoids, aka bioflavonoids, which are polyphenol antioxidants. Researchers from United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) noted that flavonoid concentrations differ in tea beverages, depending on the various sorts of preparation used. Milk proteins, for example, when added to tea, possibly bind to flavonoids, and therefore reduce the tea flavonoid concentrations.
"Tea is drunk to forget the din of the world": Chinese Philosopher and Tea Enthusiast T'ien Yiheng.
"There is a great deal of poetry and fine sentiment in a chest of tea": American Philosopher and Poet Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882).
"Each cup of tea represents an imaginary voyage": Author and Writer Catherine Douzel.
"Drinking a daily cup of tea will surely starve the apothecary": Chinese Proverb.
"Oolong tea is effective in controlling body weight": An Ancient Chinese Belief.
"There is no trouble so great or grave that cannot be much diminished by a nice cup of tea": Philosopher Bernard-Paul Heroux.
"If you are cold, tea will warm you. If you are too heated, it will cool you. If you are depressed, it will cheer you. If you are excited, it will calm you": British Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898).
"Not for all the tea in China": A phrase originated in early 20th century. It means that we would not do something even if we were offered a fortune; it is an expression to indicate "Not at any price".
"Thank God for tea! What would the world do without tea"! British Writer Sydney Smith (1771-1845).
"A good woman is like a tea bag. You never know how strong she is until she gets in hot water": The First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945 Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962).
"Come, let us have some tea and continue to talk about happy things": American Author Chaim Potok (1929-2002).
"Drink your tea slowly and reverently, as if it is the axis on which the world earth revolves slowly, evenly, without rushing toward the future. Live the actual moment. Only this moment is life": Vietnamese Buddhist Monk Nat Hahn (born 1926).
1. Research works have revealed that tea drinking may be associated with cell-mediated immune function of the human body.
2. Tea plays an important role in improving beneficial intestinal micro-flora, as well as providing immunity against intestinal disorders and in protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage.
3. Tea prevents dental caries due to the presence of fluoride.
4. The role of tea has been well established in normalizing blood pressure.
5. Tea possesses germicidal and germ-static activities against various gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria.
6. Tea helps the iron absorption.
7. Tea raises metabolic rates and increases fat oxidation rates, which are two factors that are predictive of weight loss.
8. Drinking black tea along with following a prudent diet moderately low in fat, cholesterol, and saturated fatty acids, reduces total and LDL cholesterol by significant amounts and may, therefore, reduce the risk of Coronary Heart Diseases (CHD).
9. In Experimental Nutrition, it was found that regularly brewed tea, when added to the fat cells of laboratory rats, could increase insulin activity by more than 15 times. Conformational studies in humans are however required before the beneficial role of tea in enhancing insulin activity can be applied to people.
10. Nearly 95 percent of tea's polyphenol compounds are flavonoids (like Catechins in green tea and Thearubigins and Theaflavins in black tea). Some polyphenols have recently been determined, in test tube studies, to be more potent antioxidants than the well-known vitamins A, C, and E. And again, the results from those studies cannot be applied to humans.
11. Researchers from Japan suggest that the antioxidants in green tea may be responsible for the protective effects of green tea against gum disease.
12. On 4 May 2009, the University of Copenhagen (UC) in Denmark reported online that, 'Researchers at the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UC, are attempting, with the help of a special African tea, to develop a new treatment for type-2 diabetics. The tea is used as a treatment in traditional Nigerian medicine and is produced from the extract of Rauvolfia vomitoria leaves and the fruit of Citrus aurantium. The scientists have recently tested the tea on patients with type-2 diabetes and the results are promising".
Catherine Douzel (See above) was not probably the only one who was quoted as "Each cup of tea represents an imaginary voyage". The late Iranian poet Kazem Pezeshki Shirazi, also used to repeatedly read these two lines of his poem that, "Have some tea and cake with your own true friends and dear pals. Imagine then you are in India where you can watch an elephant, the largest of all animals" (in Persian: Chai-o Shirini Beh Khor Baa Doostaan. Yaad Kon as Feel Dar Hindustan)!
It should be also noted that long before the cultivation of tea in Iran in 1902, the coffee was popular in Iran and there were many Coffee Houses (in Persian: Ghahveh Khaaneh) in the cities and along the roads connecting different places in the country. As tea was produced and marketed in Iran, brewed tea replaced coffee in most of those houses. But the old name of the house or Ghahveh Khaaneh remained the same.
Well, may be it is time now to put the kettle on for tea and wait for its familiar whistle
Manouchehr Saadat Noury, PhD

Kushiyama, M., Shimazaki, Y., Murakami, M., and Y. Yamashita (2009): Relationship between Intake of Green Tea and Periodontal Disease, Journal of Periodontology Vol. 80, No. 3, Pages 372-377.
Quote Garden Website (2009): Online Quotations about Tea.
Saadat Noury, M. (2009): Online Articles on Science.
Saadat Noury, M. (2009): Online Article on First Iranian who Set Up the First Tea Plantations in Iran.
Saadat Noury, M. (1982): Principles of Human Nutrition in Health and Disease (in Persian), ed., Tehran, Iran.
Saadat Noury, M. (1976): Principles of Experimental Nutrition, ed., (in Persian), Tehran University Publications, Tehran, Iran.
Saadat Noury, M. (2009): Various Notes and Articles on Iranian Poets and Persian Poetry.
Tea Land Website (2009): Online Note on Tea History.
UC Website (2009): Online News on Tea for the Treatment of Type-2 Diabetes.
USDA Website (2009): Online Article on "Brewing Up the Latest Tea Research".
Wikipedia Encyclopedia (2009): Online Article on Tea
Originally published on 1 November 2009 here

MSN Selected Articles

سه‌شنبه ۱۵ مهر ۱۳۹۳ ه‍.ش.

گفتنی های تغذیه : ١١ - چای و برخی خواص آن

 شناخت چای
١ - مشخصات گیاه شناسی چای: چای گیاهی است از شاخه نهاندانگان یک پایه و از رده ی دو لپه ای ها و از راسته ی پاریتال از خانواده ی تیاسه و از جنس کاملیا با نام علمی کاملیا سیننسیس که خزان ناپذیر و همیشه سبز می باشد. گل های چای، سفید معطر و بطور خوشه ای و مجتمع و یا تک گل در کنار برگ ها ظاهر می شود . دارای ۵ تا ۷ گلبرگ و کاسبرگ و مقدار زیادی پرچم (۲۰ تا۲۰۰) است. تخمدان، دارای ۳ تا ۴ حجره است  که در هر کدام یک تا سه دانه مشاهده می شود. میوه ی چای به شکل کپسول می باشد. جنس کاملیا دارای ۸۲ گونه است که تعدادی برای تولید چای و عده ای نیز برای روغن کشی است  و بقیه در گروه گیاهان زینتی محسوب می شوند. چای هایی که برای چای سازی کشت می شود دارای سه تیپ است: تیپ یا فرم آسامی - تیپ یا فرم چینی - تیپ یا فرم جنوبی.
٢ - چای: نام یک گیاه و نوشیدنی ساخته شده از این گیاه است. چای واژه‌ای است چینی که در چین و شمال هندوستان به کار می‌رود و تقریباً با همان تلفظ وارد زبان فارسی شده‌است. مردم اروپای غربی نام این گیاه را از چینیان شمالی و مردم خاورمیانه و شمال آفریقا نام آن را از چینیان جنوبی آموختند. نوشیدنی چای با دم کردن برگ ها، جوانه ‌ها یا شاخه ‌های فرآوری شده بوته چای گونه ی کاملیا سیننسیس به مدت چند دقیقه درآب داغ درست می‌شود. فرآوری آن می‌تواند شامل اکسیداسیون، حرارت دهی، خشک سازی و افزودن گیاهان، گل ها، چاشنی ها و میوه‌ های دیگر به آن باشد. چای یک منبع طبیعی از کافئین، تئوفیلین، تیانین و آنتی اکسیدان‌ها ست.
٣ - چای: برگی است که از چین و ختن آورند و در آب جوشانیده مانند قهوه خورند و خاصیت آن بسیار است و مضرت شراب را دفع کند.
٤- درخت چای: گیاهی است همیشه سبز که در طبیعت و به حال وحشی ارتفاع آن به ٦ تا ٧ و گاهی به ١۵ متر می‌رسد. نام علمی چای که مورد قبول بیشتر گیاه شناسان است کاملیا سیننسیس  و گاهی کاملیا تیفرا برای هر دو نوع چای سیاه و چای سبز می‌باشد.
انواع چای
چای به چهار دسته تقسیم می‌شود: تخمیری (چای سیاه)، تخمیرنشده (چای سبز)، نیمه تخمیری (چای اولانگ و پوچونگ) و چای سفید (برگ‌های تازه ی چای که تحت عمل اکسیداسیون قرار نگرفته‌اند): تارنماهای گو ناگون
 تاریخچه ی کشت و مصرف چای
١ - بوته چای برای نخستین بار در چین حدود پنج هزار سال پیش شناخته شد و به تدریج خواص درمانی آن کشف شد. علاوه بر آن از چای برای مصارف رنگ ‌آمیزی نیز استفاده می‌شده‌است. هلندی‌ها در سده ی هفدهم چای را از چین به اروپا بردند. نیکولاس تولپ پزشک هلندی در کتاب خود تحت عنوان مشاهدات پزشکی در سال ۱٦٤۱ اعلام کرد: با نوشیدن چای از همه بیماری‌ها در امان هستید و عمرتان طولانی می‌شود. در قرن ۱۸ «آن» ملکه انگلیس چای را بجای آبجو به عنوان نوشیدنی صبحانه خود انتخاب کرد.
٢ - برخی معتقدند که پیشینهٔ مصرف چای در ایران به سده ی هفدهم میلادی می‌رسد و برخی از جهانگردان از چای خانه‌هایی سخن گفته‌اند که بزرگان و توانگران در آن جا جمع می‌شدند و چای می‌نوشیدند. کشت نوین چای در ایران، از سال ۱۳۱٤ هجری قمری آغاز شد. در این سال، یکی از رجال آن دوره به نام محمد میرزا کاشف السلطنه که به عنوان ژنرال کنسول ایران در هند مأمور به خدمت بود، توانست در بازگشت به ایران، چند بوته چای را با زحمت فراوان وارد ایران کند. وی با توجه به مطالعاتی که بر روی انواع چای و نحوه کشت آنها نموده بود، شهر لاهیجان را به دلیل وجود هوای مناسب برای کشت چای انتخاب کرد. این شهر امروز به عنوان مرکز کشت چای در ایران درآمده‌است.
٣ - مسعود کیهان در کتاب جغرافیای مفصل اقتصادی ایران می نویسد: «زراعت چای از سال ١٢٧۵ شمسی در ولایات ساحلی بحر خزر مخصوصاً در لاهیجان لنگرود، تنکابن ، رودسر و فومن معمول گردید».
٤ - در مورد محمد میرزا کاشف السلطنه علاقه مندان می توانند به نوشتاری از همین نگارنده به زبان انگلیسی و با عنوان "نخستین ایرانی که کشت چای را در ایران بنا نهاد" مراجعه نمایند.
تركیبات شیمیائی چای
١ - چای شامل کاته چین (نوعی آنتی اکسیدان) است. دربرگ تازه چای، کاته چین می‌تواند ٪۳۰ کل وزن برگ خشک را تشکیل دهد. بالاترین مقدار کاته چین در چای ‌های سفید و سبز متمرکز شده‌است، اما اساساً چای سیاه به دلیل استعداد اکسید شوندگی خود کمتر از آن برخوردار است. چای همچنین دارای مواد محرکی چون کافئین (حدود ٪۳ وزن چای خشک و برابر با ۴۰ میلی گرم به ازای هر فنجان چای دم کرده)، تئو فیلین و تئو برومین است، که مقدار دو ماده اخیر بسیار اندک می‌باشد. چای دارای مقادیری پلی فنل و تانن و فاقد اسید تانیک است.
٢ - مواد متشکله ی برگ چای عبارتست از مواد سلولزی، مواد صمغی، دکسترین، پکتین، مواد چربی، مواد مومی، نشاسته، قند، اسید گالیک، اسید اگزالیک، کورستین، مواد پروتئینی، الیاف، مواد معدنی، تانن، کافئین یا تئین، ترکیبات معطر و بالاخره دیاستاز.
برخی خواص و فواید چای
١ - مصرف دم‌کردهٔ چای باعث تسریع حرکات تنفسی، سرعت در گردش خون، رفع خواب‌آلودگی، احساس تجدید نیرو، تقویت نیروی فکری، گوارش بهتر غذا و تعریق می‌شود از این رو چای را هنگام خستگی، ضعف عصبی، میگرن، بیماری‌های قلبی و آسم می‌توان تجویز نمود. به گفته ی دکتر جان وایسبرگر، عضو بلند پایه موسسه بهداشت آمریکا، چای ممکن است در کاهش خطر برخی بیماری‌های مزمن عمده مثل سکته، حمله قلبی و بعضی سرطان‌ها مفید باشد. نوشیدن چای می‌تواند از پوسیدگی دندان‌ها جلوگیری کند؛ این‌ها اخبار بسیار خوبی برای مردم تمام دنیاست چون چای پس از آب پر مصرفترین نوشیدنی در دنیاست و روزانه یک میلیارد فنجان چای در دنیا نوشیده می‌شود.
در بسیاری فرهنگ‌ها در سراسر تاریخ، چای به عنوان یک معجون شفابخش تلقی شده‌است. بیش از هزارسال قبل راهبان بودایی به دلایل مذهبی چای می‌نوشیدند و معتقد بودند که در زمان درون‌پویی به بیدار ماندن آنها کمک می‌کند. راهبان بودایی همچنین معتقد بودند چای دارای نیروهای شفا بخش است و همراه با گسترش بودیسم، چای و تقاضا برای آن نیز افزایش یافت. یکی از بزرگان ژاپنی قرن سیزدهم بنام «شوگون» در اثر پرخوری در آستانه مرگ قرار گرفته بود که یک راهب به او رژیم چای توصیه کرد و او بهبود پیدا کرد. همین کافی بود تا مردم ژاپن بیشتر به دم کردن چای روی بیاورند.
یکی از دلایلی که دم کردهٔ چای در دوران گذشته در نجات زندگی افراد موثر بوده این است که آب جوشیده باکتری‌های بیماری‌زا را از بین می‌برد. براساس نتایج یک تحقیق گسترده در هلند، خطر سکته مغزی برای مردانی که روزانه چهار پنج فنجان چای می‌نوشند ۷۰ درصد کمتر است. یک تحقیق دیگر در سال ۱۹۹۳ اعلام کرد مصرف زیاد چای، حمله قلبی مهلک را کاهش می‌دهد. مالزیجان فولتس مدیر مرکز پیشگیری یک مدرسه پزشکی به این نتیجه رسید که چای از ایجاد لخته‌های خطرناک خون که منجر به حملات قلبی و سکته می‌شود جلوگیری می‌کند. سایر مطالعات نیز نشان می‌دهد که سطح چربی خون و فشار خون برخی مصرف کنندگان چای پایین‌تر است.
بیش از ۲۰ تحقیق در مورد حیوانات نشان داد که چای ممکن است از بعضی سرطان‌ها مثل سرطان دستگاه گوارش، سرطان دستگاه تنفس و سرطان پوست جلوگیری کند. «وایسبرگر» که پیشتر به نام وی اشاره شد اظهار می‌کند که نوشیدن چای همراه با خوردن مقداری میوه و سبزی یک راه چاره ارزان و آسان برای کاهش خطر برخی سرطان‌ها باشد. محققان دریافتند که مصرف چای تا ۹۰ درصد از آفتاب سوختگی منجر به سرطان پوست جلوگیری می‌کند.
چون چای حاوی فلوراید است، می‌تواند مقاومت دندان‌ها را زیاد و از پوسیدگی آنها جلوگیری کند. در مطالعات آزمایشگاهی محققان ژاپنی پی بردند که چای با پیشگیری از تشکیل پلاک دندانی برخی باکتری‌های دندانی را که می‌توانند باعث بیماری لثه شوند، نابود می‌کند. چای دارای انواع پلی فنل است. پلی فنل ها آنتی اکسیدان ‌هایی هستند که سلول‌های انسان را از صدمه محافظت می‌کنند. فلاونیدها گروهی از پلی فنل‌ها هستند که بطور طبیعی در چای وجود دارند. به نظر می‌رسد سطوح بالای این پلی فنل‌ها در بدن می‌تواند علاوه بر ویروس ‌ها با سرطان ‌های لوزالمعده، روده بزرگ، مثانه، پروستات و سینه نیز مقابله کند. ذکر این نکته نیز بجاست که چای سبز دارای سطوح بالاتری از پلی فنل‌هاست لذا در مقایسه با چای سیاه (تخمیری) مفیدتر است. حکیم چینی «تین یی هنگ» معتقد بوده: «نوشیدن چای برای فراموش کردن غوغای دنیاست».
٢ - یکی دیگر از فواید مصرف چای سبز، کاهش مرگ و میر به دلیل هر نوع بیماری مخصوصاً بیماری قلبی ـ عروقی می‌باشد. در مطالعه‌ای که در سال ٢٠٠٦ صورت گرفت محققان دریافتند که چای از هر نوع نوشیدنی دیگر حتی آب خالص ، برای سلامتی مفیدتر است زیرا چای نه تنها بخوبی آب خالص ، بدن را هیدراته (آب رسانی)  می کند بلکه منبعی غنی از پلی فنل می‌باشد که از بیماریهای قلبی جلوگیری می‌کند. در سال ١٩٩٤ در ژاپن تحقیقی بر روی ٤٠۵٣٠ فرد در سنین بین ٤٠ تا ٧٩ سال انجام گرفت که به مدت ١١ سال به طول انجامید. در این گروه انتخاب شده ٨٠ ٪ از افراد روزانه حدود ٣ فنجان از چای سبز مصرف می‌نمودند. در این تحقیق مشاهده گردید که در افرادی که ٥ فنجان در روز چای سبز می‌نوشیدند،‌ در مقایسه با افرادی که ١ فنجان چای می‌نوشیدند احتمال مرگ به دلیل هر بیماری خصوصاً بوسیله بیماریهای قلبی ـ عروقی بسیار کمتر بود حتی این آمار نشان داد که تاثیر چای سبز بر روی زنان بیشتر از مردان می‌باشد.
٣ - گفته می شود که برای بهره مندی از خواص چای نباید اجازه داد بیشتر از یک دقیقه دم بکشد. این تصور اشتباهی است زیرا پلی فنل های موجود در چای به آرامی پخش می شوند و باید زمان بیشتری برای دم کشیدن چای در نظر گرفته شود. به عنوان مثال برگ های چای سبز به ١٠ دقیقه وقت نیاز دارند.
آماری در مورد میزان تولید و مصرف چای در ایران
١ - رییس مرکز تحقیقات چای ایران در گفت و گو با خبرنگار علمی ایرنا،درباره میزان تولید و سرانه مصرف چای داخل گفت: مصرف سرانه چای داخل کشور براساس آمارهای موجود، بین ١/١ تا ۵/١ کیلوگرم است که با این حساب، سالانه ٨٠ تا ١١٠ هزار تن چای به مصرف می رسد و چای تولید داخل تا ٢٠ درصد این میزان را تامین می کند. به گفته وی در سال ١٣٩١، کشاورزان ایرانی ٣٠ هزار تن و سال ١٣٩٢ هم حدود ٢٠ هزار تن چای خشک تولید کردند که همه ساله بیشتر آن در داخل مصرف می شود و حدود ١٠ تا ٢٠ درصد چای تولید داخل با کیفیت متوسط به کشورهای همسایه صادر می شود و چای درجه یک ایرانی، مصرف کننده داخلی دارد. وی یادآور شد: تولید چای در سال های اخیر روند کاهشی داشته است به طوریکه میزان چای تولیدی پنج سال قبل کشور، ٥٠ تا ٦٠ هزار تن بوده است.
٢ - سهم ایران ۴ تا ۵/۴ درصد از مصرف کل چای جهان است.
خبر هایی پیرامون موضوع چای
١ - هر  سال جشنواره (فستیوال) چای و قهوه در یکی از شهرهای دنیا برگزار می شود و هنگام برگزاری این جشنواره بیش از نیم میلیون نفر از آن دیدن می کنند و با گذشت هر سال تعداد شرکت کنند گان بیشتر می شود. مهمترین هدف این فستیوال تبلیغ سبک سالم زندگی و روشنگری فرهنگی در جهت جلب توجه به برخورد معاصر انسان نسبت به سلامتی خویش است. معمولا نمایند گان کشورهای چین، هند، ایتالیا، فنلاند، کنیا، آفریقای جنوبی، سریلانکا، روسیه و دیگر کشورها در این جشنواره شرکت دارند. آنها نه فقط نمونه های چای و قهوه تولید کشور خود را معرفی می کنند بلکه بر سر دریافت بهترین عنوان در این رشته مبارزه می نمایند و هیأت داوران، گواهی مرغوبیت و مدال را به برندگان فستیوال اعطا می کند. شرکت کنند گان جشنواره چای و قهوه می توانند انواع مختلف نوشابه های سنتی را خریداری و با سنن نوشیدن این نوشابه ها آشنا شوند. در این جشنواره، نمایشگاه و برنامه ی چشیدن چای و قهوه نیز برگزار می شود. این بهانه ی خوبی برای چشیدن قهوه و چای تولید شده بر طبق آن فناوری هایی است که بدشواری می توان آن ها را در شرایط خانگی سازماندهی کرد. مراسم چای نوشی ژاپنی و چینی ، درست کردن چای هندی ، آماده کردن سماور ذغالی و خوردنی های چای نوشی و گیاهان مطبوع و شیرینی جات و لوازم آشپزخانه نیز به معرض نمایش گذاشته می شود
٢ - چای صادراتی هند به ایران سمی است: یک سازمان غیر دولتی هند اعلام کرد با بررسی نمونه هایی از ۴۹ برند تجاری چای از ۱۱ شرکت برجسته که به کشورهایی از جمله ایران صادرات دارند مشخص شده است چای تولیدی  هند حاوی سموم آفت کش است.
٣ - کلاچای یکی از شهرهای استان گیلان در شمال ایران است و در بخش کلاچای در شهرستان رودسر قرار دارد. بخشدار کلاچای از وقوع حریق و آتش سوزی در سطح بیش از سه هکتار از باغ های چای در روستای اسلام آباد سلاکجان این بخش خبر داد. وی روز یکشنبه ٦ مهر ۱٣۹٣ در گفتگو با خبرنگار ایرنا بیان کرد: در اثر این آتش سوزی که عصر روز گذشته به وقوع پیوست، بخش زیادی از این باغ ها در آتش سوخت. وی اظهار کرد: شدت آتش سوزی به حدی بود که برای مهار آتش عوامل آتش نشانی از شهرهای واجارگاه، کلاچای، چابکسر و رحیم آباد به محل حادثه اعزام شدند

.رباعی چای از همین نگارنده

ای ننوشیده چای_ ایران را
و ندانی که طعم_ چایی چیست؟

 چای_ خوش رنگ و عطر_ لاهیجان
یک نمونه ز چای_ ایرانیست

 دکتر منوچهر سعادت نوری
 همچنین نگاه کنید به نوشتاری پیرامون چای به زبان انگلیسی از همین نگارنده
منابع و مآخذ
شناخت چای: تارنمای سازمان چای کشور - تارنمای ویکی‌پدیا - تارنمای لغت نامه دهخدا - تارنمای ایران رشد
انواع چای: تارنماهای گوناگون
تاریخچه ی کشت و مصرف چای: تارنمای ویکی‌پدیا - کتاب جغرافیای مفصل اقتصادی ایران - تارنمای لغت نامه دهخدا
نخستین ایرانی که کشت چای را در ایران بنا نهاد - نوشتاری از همین نگارنده به زبان انگلیسی: تارنمای ایرانیان و بسیاری از تارنماها  
تركیبات شیمیائی چای: تارنمای ویکی‌پدیا - تارنمای ایران رشد
برخی خواص و فواید چای: تارنمای ویکی‌پدیا - تارنمای بیتوته - تارنماهای گوناگون
آماری در مورد میزان تولید و مصرف چای در ایران: تارنمای ایرنا - تارنمای ویکی‌پدیا
خبر هایی پیرامون موضوع چای: تارنمای فارسی صدای روسیه - تارنمای خبرگزاری تسنیم - تارنمای ایرنا

گزیده ای از نوشتارها
بخش های پیشین گفتنی های تغذیه
١ - فوائد خوردن صبحانه
٢ - "موز" و برخی خواص آن
۳ - "هلو" و برخی خواص آن
٤ - "زرشک" و برخی خواص آن
۵ - میوه ی "سیب" و برخی خواص آن
٦ - تغذ یه و سلا مت جسم و روان
٧ - "پسته" و برخی خواص آن
٨ - یادداشتی کوتاه پیرامون شیر و گوشت شتر
٩ - شلغم و برخی خواص آن
١٠ - زرد چوبه و برخی خواص آن