۱۳۹۲ دی ۹, دوشنبه

======= About "January" : in English & Persian =======

 January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and one of seven months with the length of 31 days. The first day of the month is known as New Year's Day.

ژانویه : نخستین ماه سال میلادی در گاهشماری گریگوری و گاه‌شمار ژولینی است و یکی از هفت ماه سال میلادی است که ۳۱ روز دارد. در بیشتر نقاط جهان نخستین روز این ماه با نام «روز سال نو» شناخته شده‌است.

 The Name : January is named for Janus, a god in Roman mythology, and is represented by a look to signify his knowledge of the present and future. He was the god of the doorway and protector of all entrances and gateways. It has been documented that Janus has a distinctive artistic appearance in that he is commonly depicted with two faces, one regarding what is behind and the other looking toward what lies ahead. Thus, Janus is representative of contemplation on the happenings of an old year while looking forward to the new. Some sources claim that Janus was characterized in such a peculiar fashion due to the notion that doors and gates look in two directions. Therefore, the god could look both backward and forward at the same time. Originally, Janus was portrayed with one bearded face and the other clean-shaven, which may have symbolized the moon and the sun, or age and youth. Later, he is most often shown with beards on both faces and frequently holds a key in his right hand.
 In his role as the Guardian of Exits and Entrances, Janus was also believed to represent beginnings. The explanation for this belief being that one must emerge through a door or gate in order to enter into a new place. Therefore, the Romans also considered Janus as the god of Beginnings and his name was an obvious choice for the first month of their year, a month referred to by the Ancient Romans as “Ianuarius”, which is not so far removed from the modern-day "January," taken from the Etruscan word “jauna” which means "door." Originally, however, Janus was honored on the first day of every month, in addition to being worshipped at the beginning of planting season and again at the harvest. Deference was also paid to him at the most important beginnings in the life of an individual such as birth and marriage.
The dual-faced image of Janus could be found on most city gates and many Roman coins. Given his role as Guardian of Gates, his position as the god of Beginnings and the esteem of having the first month of the year named in his honor, it is apparent that Janus played a significant role in Roman myth and religion. He was invoked at the start of each new day and often referred to as the Porter of Heaven. He particularly presided over all that is double-edged in life and represented the transition between the primitive and civilization. Romans prayed to Janus during war. The Romans had an important temple to Janus, which was called the Ianus geminus. This temple served a symbolic function. When the gates of the structure were closed, this represented peace in the Roman Empire; but when the gates were open, it meant that the Romans were at war. They also called on him at the beginning of every prayer, even before Jupiter (In Greek mythology, Zeus corresponds to Jupiter in Roman mythology who was the king of Heaven and Earth and of all the Olympian gods. He was also known as the god of justice).
Janus in the Italian Culture: Janus, the fabled offspring of Coelus and Hecate, or of Apollo and Creusa, reigned in early times over Italy, and was the founder of the town Janiculum, the boasted father of Fontus. According to other documents Janus as the fabled son of Uranus, was and still is believed to have been the most ancient King of Italy, whose hospitality received Saturn, when, as a fugitive from Crete, the father of Jupiter, banished by his son, arrived on the shores of Latinum. According to the account of Aurelius Victor, Janus was the master-mind of the age in which he lived; and as the founder of Janiculum, he taught his people the divisions of the year, the use of shipping, and of money, the rules of justice, and the mode of living happily under the authority of the laws; he also instructed them how to build temples and to honor the Gods with sacrificial worship; to surround the cities with walls, to grow corn and to plant the vine. It was out of gratitude for these alleged benefits that Janus was placed by the Romans in the rank of the gods, and regarded as presiding over treaties. On the first of January, or in the calends of that month, they celebrated the Janualia. At that festival they offered to Janus a mixture of flour and salt, with incense and with wine.
Janus in the Persian and the Greek Cultures : Janus did not have any counterpart in either Persian or Greek mythologies. 

 Janus in the Vedic Culture: Veda is a term for one or all of the holy books of writings of Hinduism. In Vedic culture, the myth of the god Janus had four heads, each of which represented a phase of the moon in Sagittarius, which marked the four seasons. One head was the full moon, which gave the time of the spring equinox, another was the new moon, during which time the autumn equinox fell, still another was the half waning moon, marking the winter solstice, and finally came the head representing the half waxing moon, during which time came the summer solstice. From current knowledge of the movement of the sphere of stars surrounding the earth, it can be calculated that the observations leading to the myth of Janus were made around 4000 BC. Additionally, within the “Veda” is a verse observing the winter solstice in Aries, which would have placed it at around 6500 BC.
In other Cultures: The Anglo-Saxons called the first month of the year as Wolf Monath (meaning wolf month) because wolves came into the villages in winter in search of food.
In old Japanese calendar, the month is called Mutsuki. The second day of the month is known as Hatsuyume and the 7th day as Nanakusa. In Finnish, the month is called Tammikuu, meaning "Month of the Oak".
Events: The important events on January the 1st or the New Year Day in history are:
153 BC - Roman consuls first began their year in office
45 BC - Julian calendar went into effect
404 - Last gladiator competition in Rome
1438 - Albert II of Habsburg became King of Hungary
1502 - Rio de Janeiro discovered
1600 - Scotland first began the numbered year of its Julian calendar
1651 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland
1700 - Russia first adopted Western numbers for its Julian calendar
1707 - John V became King of Portugal
1788 - First edition of The Times, previously The Daily Universal Register, was published.
1804 - End of French rule in Haiti.
1808 - Importation of slaves into the United States was banned
1880 - Construction of the Panama Canal began
1887 - Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India
1893 - Japan accepted the Gregorian calendar
1899 - End of Spanish rule in Cuba.
1901 - Nigeria became a British protectorate
1901 - Establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia (Federation).
1902 - The first Rose Bowl game was played in Pasadena, California
1908 - A ball signifying New Year's Day dropped in Times Square, NYC, for the first time
1912 - Establishment of Republic of China
1925 – Reza Shah became the Shah of Iran
1934 - Alcatraz became a Federal Prison in the US.
1942 - The word "United Nations" was first officially used to describe the Allied Pact.
1948 - Nationalization of UK railways to form British Railways.
1956 - End of Anglo-Egyptian Condominium in Sudan.
1958 - European Community established
1959 - Cuba: Fulgencio Batista was overthrown by Fidel Castro.
1960 - Cameroon became independent
1971 - Cigarette was banned on United States television
1973 - United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark joined the EEC
1981 - Greece entered the European Community
1984 - Brunei became a fully independent state.
1984 - Spain and Portugal entered the European Community
1993 - Czechoslovakia divided. Establishment of Slovakia and the Czech Republic
1993 - A single market within the European Community was introduced
1994 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) went into effect
1995 - World Trade Organization went into effect
1995 - Austria, Finland and Sweden entered the European Union
1999 - Euro currency introduced.
2002 - Euro banknotes and coins became legal tender.
2004 - Pervez Musharraf got vote of confidence to continue as President of Pakistan.
It should be also noted that in the month of January, there were two significant days in the history of Iran. On January 16, 1979 the monarchy regime was ended in Iran and on January 26, 1980 Abolhassan Bani Sadr was appointed as the First President of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and he was overthrown a year after.

A New Year resolution: A New Year Resolution or A January Quest is a commitment that an individual makes to a project or a habit, often a lifestyle change that is generally interpreted as advantageous. The name comes from the fact that these commitments normally go into effect on New Year's Day (January the 1st) and remain until the set goal has been achieved, although many resolutions go unachieved and are often broken fairly shortly after they are set.

در آستانه هر سال نو، بسیاری از مردم تصمیم می‌گیرند که در رفتار و عادت‌های خود تغییر به وجود آورند... چگونه در سال نو تغییرات پایدار در رفتار خود به وجود آوریم:

 Some Selected Poems on January
The days are short, The sun a spark
Hung thin between, The dark and dark
Fat snowy footsteps, Track the floor
And parkas pile up. Near the door
The river is, A frozen place
Held still beneath. The trees' black lace
The sky is low. The wind is gray
The radiator. Purrs all day : John Updike
Chill January’s snow falls thick and fast
Propelled by blinding blizzard’s biting blast,
So soft white blankets bind the earth for days,
Though spring means drifts shall not lie long nor last.
Bleak January’s rain falls hard and long
Impelled by fierce Atlantic gales, full strong
So even mighty oaks bow in their wake
Till fury fades to calm in spring’s sweet song... : C Richard Miles
The work of winter starts fermenting in my head
How with the hands of a lover or a midwife
To hold back till the time is right
Force nothing, be unforced
Accept no giant miracles of growth
By counterfeit light
Trust roots, allow the days to shrink
Give credence to these slender means
Wait without sadness and with grave impatience
Here in the north where winter has a meaning
Where the heaped colors suddenly go ashen
Where nothing is promised
Learn what an underground journey
Has been, might have to be; speak in a winter code
Let fog, sleet, translate; wind, carry them: Adrienne Rich
ژانویه : در زنجیری از سروده‌ ها
ژانویه : با چنین قامت بالنده ی سبز
کاج در باغ ، خدایی ابدی ست
گوش ، سرشار_ نماز_ باران
بهر میلاد_ پسر خوانده ی خاک
مشکنیدش ، مبریدش ، یاران
دکتر محمدرضا شفیعی کدکنی

بازم یه سال دیگه شد ، سالی مث سالای پیش
دوباره نسل آدما ، با غم و غصه ، قوم و خویش
سالی که توش کامپیوتر با آدما حرف می زنه
جای ما بازی می کنه ، گلوله ها برف می زنه
سالی که باز شروع می شه با هدیه های ژانویه
امید عاشقاس فقط ، چهاردهم ، تو فوریه
یه سال مث سالای قبل ، غریب و بی طاقت و سرد
یه کم خوشی ، یه کم بلا ، یه دنیا غصه ، کلی درد
یه سالی که بهش می گن سال رواج گفتگو
اول سال باز می کنن ، آدما کلی آرزو
مریم حیدرزاده

اول ژانویه ، درهای سال باز می شود
همچون درهای زبان ، ر قلمرو ناشناخته ها
دیشب با من به زبان آوردی :
فردا ، باید نشانه‌یی اندیشید
دورنمایی ترسیم کرد ، طرحی افکند
بر صفحه‌‌ی مضاعف روز و کاغذ
فردا می باید ، دیگر باز واقعیت این جهان را باز آفرید
چشمان خود را دیر از هم گشودم
برای لحظه‌ ای احساس کردم
آنچه را که آزتک ها احساس کردند بر چکاد پرتگاه
بدان هنگام که بازگشت نامعلوم زمان را
از ورای رخنه های افق ، در کمین نشسته بودند
اما نه ، بازگشته بود سال
خانه را به تمامی باز آکنده بود سال
و نگاه من آن را لمس می کرد
زمان ، بی آن که از ما یاری طلبد ،نار هم نهاده بود
درست به همانگونه که دیروز ، خانه ها را در خیاباتی خلوت
برف را بر فراز خانه ها و سکوت را بر فراز برف ها
سروده‌ ی اکتاویو پاز (۱۹۱۴ – ١٩٩٨)
ترجمه ی احمد شاملو

دانه دانه ، بر ف می با رد/ همچو مروارید غلطان ، ز آ سمان
یا بسان نقر ه گو‌ن ، ذرات ا شک/ کز دو چشم يك ا لهه * شد روان
عا شقانه ، می شود جذب ز مین/ تا که خاک تشنه ، جان یابد از آن
گستراند بستری نرم و سپید/ ورزش اسکی بر آن گیرد مکان
یا بسازد توده هایی سفت و سخت/ آدم_ برفی نشاند ارمغان
پاک می سازد فضا را  ا ز سموم/ تا نفس ها را نماید شایگان
دانه دانه ، بر ف می با رد/ محنت و رنج و غمی در آن نهان
معبری لغزنده می دا رد به پا/ سخت می سازد عبور رهروان
گاه چون بهمن ، فرو ریزد ز کوه/ بس به نا بودی کشاند مردمان
گاه جان بخش ، گاهی جان ستان/ همچو ژینوس ** می نماید بی گمان
دانه دانه ، بر ف می بارد/ زشت و زیبا ، آ فریند  ناگهان
یا بسان نقر ه گو‌ن ، ذرات ا شک/ یا چو مروارید غلطان ، ز آسمان
دکتر منوچهر سعادت نوری

* بنا بر روایت اساطیر زمانی بر ف می بارد که ا لهه ی برف گریان است
** اشا ره به ژینوس خدا مرد آغازها و دروازه‌ها ست که بر دو سو می نگرد.
ژانویه و سال_ نو_ ميلادي_ ٢٠١٤ خجسته باد
Happy New Year 2014
Manouchehr Saadat Noury, PhD